From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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Subject: Queries on PDP Unix status
To: dmr@research.att.com, ken@plan9.att.com
Date: Sat, 21 Oct 1995 15:17:41 +1000 (EST)
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Dennis, Ken,

	I'm sure you're both busy. I'm thinking of starting a PDP UNIX
preservation group, to collect stuff from this area of computing history.
No public distribution of licensed stuff.

	If you know of anybody who is interested in this, or who is already
doing something in this area, can you pass on their contact details.

	I'd also appreciate getting a contact for someone who can clarify
the distribution status of such things as the old on-line manuals/papers,
and the Lions commentary (not the src code booklet).

Thanks for any help you can give. You probably field lots of spurious email
like this. Thanks for all your work over the years, and best wishes with
Plan 9.

Cheers,
	Warren Toomey wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
Date: Sun, 22 Oct 1995 23:48:25 EDT
Subject: Re: Queries on PDP Unix status
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Cc: ken@plan9.att.com
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The crucial question is, 
   ... a contact for someone who can clarify
   the distribution status of such things as the old on-line manuals/papers,
   and the Lions commentary (not the src code booklet).

Unfortunately there is no simple answer.  I've been somewhat involved
in one aspect of this: the Lions commentaries.  Here is the story with
them.

John is interested in republishing the source and the commentary
as a historical document and is being aided by Peter Salus (peter@usenix.org)
and Berny Goodhart.  To shorten a long story, AT&T is willing to allow this,
Novell was hesitant, and SCO seems almost ready to allow it.
(Background: the transfer of Unix stuff from AT&T to USL,
then to Novell, mentioned only System III and derivatives.
However there is also language about "prereleases" of System III,
which might possibly apply to the 6th edition even though it
is some 6-7 years earlier.  Neither Novell nor SCO (about-to-be
owner of the IP) are worried about people actually using the
6th edition in competition with them; they wonder, in a
generally lawyer-like way, whether publishing the
"trade secrets" in the code might in some way compromise
their current ownership.)

At any rate, it's at least possible that SCO will give John, Peter
etc. the go-ahead.  Certainly Lions owns the primary rights
in his commentaries themselves.

We have most of our own stuff online (v5, v6, v7, v8), but not
the UCB PDP11 distributions.

More about distribution and copyrights: just collecting things
will not be objected to by anyone.  Moreover I suspect that
AT&T could be convinced that it owns full rights in manuals
and papers (i.e. would sign a publication permission letter
if it thought a project worth while).  In contrast, it's clear that
publishing code is a somewhat touchy subject and it's hard
to get people to sign off.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Mon, 23 Oct 1995 01:25:24 EDT
Subject: Re: Queries on PDP Unix status
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     I'll contact Peter and get him to keep me informed of the status of [Lions].

OK.  In more detail, the situation is this: the efforts with Novell were
rebuffed (basically "we don't really want to think about this").  We
know several of the SCO folks from way back (SCO is buying the SVr5 Unix rights
from Novell) and after saying sort of the same thing at first, they now seem
somewhat sympathetic.  But the sale won't happen for a couple of months.
Incidentally this is all complicated by the fact that Lions is in declining
shape physically.

Do not bother to talk to anyone at Novell.  They are selling it all off and have
no interest in dealing with such questions.

   We have 7th Edition running here, with a license. Can we talk to Bell Labs/AT&T
   about getting copies of 5th and 6th? Or who is the right person? Or is there
   a right person ??

I think I'm the person you need at AT&T; there is no one here distributing
any version of Unix in any official capacity.  If you have a 7th edition
then you are entitled to a 5th and 6th, and I'd be willing to let you have
it.   I guess the question is, what do you want to do with it?  If it's to
be put in an archive (sort of like saving the last bits of smallpox virus)
there's no problem, I'll just do it.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Mon, 23 Oct 1995 16:56:52 EDT
Subject: Re: Queries on PDP Unix status
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When the "tapes" are compressed they total about
2.8MB.  There is one from the 5th edition
and three from the 6th (root, source, documents).
We haven't been able to track down the machine-readable
source for the 5th edition documents.  However,
the 5th and 6th are quite similar and nearly
contemporaneous.  As I recall, the 6th was
created because the lawyers changed their
minds about copyright notices.

There is indeed rather little stuff from earlier.
The 4th and earlier "editions" really did refer
to editions of the manual; at that time systems
were sent out based on whatever was on the
machine at the time the tape or disk was made.
I have various listings, and a couple of years
ago Keith Bostic and Paul Vixie managed to
read some early DECtapes.  E.g. there is
a C compiler for the PDP-11/20 that
doesn't have structures or #define, and
pointers were written p[].

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: wkt (Warren Toomey)
Message-Id: <9510230456.AA11365@dolphin>
Subject: Re: Queries on PDP Unix status
To: dmr@plan9.att.com
Date: Mon, 23 Oct 1995 14:56:52 +1000 (EST)
In-Reply-To: <9510230349.AA12173@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.att.com" at Oct 22, 95 11:48:25 pm
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Dennis,
	Firstly thanks for your email.

> Here is the story with the the Lions commentaries [ ...]

> John is interested in republishing the source and the commentary
> as a historical document and is being aided by Peter Salus (peter@usenix.org)
> and Berny Goodhart.

I'll contact Peter and get him to keep me informed of the status of this.

> We have most of our own stuff online (v5, v6, v7, v8), but not
> the UCB PDP11 distributions.

We have 7th Edition running here, with a license. Can we talk to Bell Labs/AT&T
about getting copies of 5th and 6th? Or who is the right person? Or is there
a right person ??

> More about distribution and copyrights: just collecting things
> will not be objected to by anyone.  Moreover I suspect that
> AT&T could be convinced that it owns full rights in manuals
> and papers (i.e. would sign a publication permission letter
> if it thought a project worth while).  In contrast, it's clear that
> publishing code is a somewhat touchy subject and it's hard
> to get people to sign off.

Yep, I understand fully. Ok, well I'll try and talk to someone at both AT&T
and Novell for an authorative position on such things as the on-line manuals.

Thanks again for your time,

Ciao,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: wkt (Warren Toomey)
Message-Id: <9510230619.AA13255@dolphin>
Subject: Re: Queries on PDP Unix status
To: dmr@plan9.att.com
Date: Mon, 23 Oct 1995 16:19:00 +1000 (EST)
In-Reply-To: <9510230525.AA13303@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.att.com" at Oct 23, 95 01:25:24 am
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In atricle by dmr@plan9.att.com:
> 
> Do not bother to talk to anyone at Novell. They are selling it all off
> and have no interest in dealing with such questions.

Ok, thanks.

>    We have 7th Edition running here, with a license. [How do we get]
>    copies of 5th and 6th?
> 
> I think I'm the person you need at AT&T; there is no one here distributing
> any version of Unix in any official capacity.  If you have a 7th edition
> then you are entitled to a 5th and 6th, and I'd be willing to let you have
> it.   I guess the question is, what do you want to do with it?  If it's to
> be put in an archive (sort of like saving the last bits of smallpox virus)
> there's no problem, I'll just do it.

Purely for sentimental reasons 8-) I've got 2.9BSD and 7th Ed running on
an 11/45 and an 11/40, it would be fun to try 5th and 6th out as well.

I take it from your emails that not much before 5th edition is still
in existence.

Thanks again,

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: wkt (Warren Toomey)
Message-Id: <9510240654.AA23635@dolphin>
Subject: Getting 5th and 6th Edition
To: dmr@plan9.att.com
Date: Tue, 24 Oct 1995 16:54:08 +1000 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
In-Reply-To: <9510232101.AA19987@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.att.com" at Oct 23, 95 04:56:52 pm
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In atricle by dmr@plan9.att.com:
> 
> When the "tapes" are compressed they total about
> 2.8MB.  There is one from the 5th edition
> and three from the 6th (root, source, documents).
> We haven't been able to track down the machine-readable
> source for the 5th edition documents.  However,
> the 5th and 6th are quite similar and nearly
> contemporaneous.  As I recall, the 6th was
> created because the lawyers changed their
> minds about copyright notices.

Dennis, sounds good. I'm running RK05s and RL02s here, so I might have a
bit of a bootstrap problem, but at least the bits will be archived offsite
for you. But I'm determined to get them going, so send away!

Keith Bostic mentioned recently that he had 5th Edition on-line, so
maybe you can ask him about your missing stuff.

> There is indeed rather little stuff from earlier.
> The 4th and earlier "editions" really did refer
> to editions of the manual; at that time systems
> were sent out based on whatever was on the
> machine at the time the tape or disk was made.
> I have various listings, and a couple of years
> ago Keith Bostic and Paul Vixie managed to
> read some early DECtapes.  E.g. there is
> a C compiler for the PDP-11/20 that
> doesn't have structures or #define, and
> pointers were written p[].

Well, if you need any help in keeping these bits from the bit bucket, let
me know. Also, if you have any time, look at my skeletal `Preserve Unix'
web page at http://minnie.cs.adfa.oz.au/PUPS/

Thanks again,

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 1 Nov 1995 21:52:52 EST
Subject: Re: canonical answer about Sixth and Seventh Edition
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I tried a couple of drafts of that note; earlier ones were more explicit
about my guesses about how the envelope might be pushed.
I finally wrote what I sent under the assumption that the position
would be published.

After thinking about things, I'll explain my view of the situation;
it really is my view, and although I'm a bit more confident
about the position of AT&T than that of the other parties,
these are simply estimations.

AT&T doesn't care at all about what happens with early (or for that
matter late) Unix versions except that the company not be enmeshed
in problems.  This translates to: if you officially ask about something,
you might not hear an answer, but if you get one, it will say "this is
not our business."

USL cared, for reasons I can see but don't fully appreciate, about early versions,
in particular 32V (on which the BSD distributions were based).  USL
did sue BSDI and then UC Berkeley for selling and distributing
system distributions allegedly free of AT&T/USL code.  There were
many technical aspects in the suit involving details of copyright
and other matters.  My reading of the motivation for the suit is that
USL was not worried much about BSDI as a direct competitor, but
rather about the possibility that Unix as a whole (and in particular
their current System V product) might end up in the public domain;
specifically, that one or more of their large customers might
say "This material is in the public domain; there's no copyright,
there's no trade secret.  We won't pay."  Thus the BSDI suit was
mainly to establish the fact that they would fight for their rights.
The suit was in fact finally settled out of court, in a way that
cast some doubt on USL's ability to hold copyright and trade
secret claims on 32V, but did establish that they were willing
to fight for them.  USL people believe they won the battle they were
actually fighting.  BSDI also won because they're still in business,
after agreeing to make rather minimal changes in their product.

My reading is that SCO, the about-to-be owner of the Unix code
that descends from the early Bell Labs research editions, is not
going to be excessively concerned with educational, research,
or historical uses of these early versions, though they might
well be worried about commercial use.

I'm certain that right now (just before the sale is consummated)
neither Novell nor SCO will make many promises; more likely
they'll just be confused.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 1 Nov 1995 22:00:48 EST
Subject: Re: canonical answer about Sixth and Seventh Edition
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About specifics:

I have the 5 and 6 stuff in a directory.  Probably simplest is to
put it in a directory accessible for FTP.  It is 4 files in gzipped-tar
format, 2.8MB.  Let's schedule a time for making it visible.

About Helbekkmo of NSE (and generally about proving source
licenses).  I don't know how to do this.  I would be inclined to
believe people writing from universities who say they have
BSD licenses.

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 1 Nov 1995 22:22:38 EST
Subject: Re: v5-v6
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The files are now in
	incoming/oldgoo/* at plan9.att.com
(also known as netlib.att.com).  Anonymous FTP accepted.

I misspoke; they are gzipped, but they aren't tar, they are
disk images.  See what you can make of them.

BTW, Leendert van Doorn from VU in Amsterdam was here
over the summer.  He has a PDP-11 simulator that runs on
(e.g.) SGI Irix and other modern systems and can run with
images like these as their root file structures.

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 1 Nov 1995 00:40:55 EST
Subject: canonical answer about Sixth and Seventh Edition
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So far as I can determine, AT&T doesn't think it has the
right to issue new licenses for any Unix editions, and won't
do so.  Several years ago, the Unix IP was transferred to
Unix Systems Laboratories, at first as a mostly-owned subsidiary;
USL was then sold to Novell, and recently Novell agreed to
sell its Unix business to SCO (and HP is partially involved).
As of the end of October 1995 this last sale had not been
consummated.

In other words, AT&T is out of the Unix business, and has been
for some time; any licenses will have to come from the current
owner.  But the "current owner" is itself in flux, and I doubt that
even before the latest sale, Novell was quite geared up to issue
Seventh Edition licenses; I have no useful suggestions about
how to obtain one officially (it might be interesting to try).

Official sources in AT&T have said that they have no objection
to reissuance of Lions's commentaries and source publication
of the Sixth Edition.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.att.com
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Date: Thu, 2 Nov 1995 01:16:18 EST
Subject: Re: v5-v6
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Great, I'll delete the visible versions, but they're easy to reinstate
if there was a mechanical error.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: wkt (Warren Toomey)
Message-Id: <9511012239.AA17117@dolphin>
Subject: Re: canonical answer about Sixth and Seventh Edition
To: dmr@plan9.att.com
Date: Thu, 2 Nov 1995 09:39:45 +1100 (EST)
In-Reply-To: <9511010541.AA08611@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.att.com" at Nov 1, 95 00:40:55 am
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In atricle by dmr@plan9.att.com:
> 
> I have no useful suggestions about how to obtain [a license for
> v6 or v7 UNIX] officially (it might be interesting to try).

Thanks Dennis, I didn't think it would be easy (or possible). I've passed
your comments on to the people who were interested, and I might try to
make contact with someone at SCO about it.

You did mention that you could ship me v5 and v6 for the old Unix archive
we are building here. I've got Steven Schultz sending me several 2.xBSDs
to add to the collection. I also have Tom Ivar Helbekkmo, from the
Norwegian School of Economics wanting to know how he can prove he has a
source license so that I can send him some files from the archive. Any
ideas?

I have no idea what you think of all this, but in any event I'll try to
avoid `hassling' you about it! Many thanks again for your help.

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Hi,

Good luck on your quest.  I don't know the best approach to getting
the material out; I'm not sure that a petition is the best, but I
certainly support it.  Let me tell you what I encountered in recent
years in getting the Sixth Edition out.

As a brief guide: remember that
 AT&T spun off USL as a mostly-owned subsidiary with Unix
  software as its main product
 USL was then sold to Novell
 Novell then sold this business to SCO

It was several years ago that Peter Salus and Berny Goodheart began
pushing to republish the Lions commentaries and the accompanying 6th
edition source.  I think this started after AT&T had sold USL to
Novell, but it might have been even before.  I tried to use my best
offices to encourage this, but we didn't get anywhere.  In part, I
suppose, things were complicated by the USL vs BSDI and later vs UC
Berkeley lawsuit, which definitely made people nervous about rights
and what might happen if even historical stuff became available.  (I
tried to help with that too, also to no evident avail on my part, but
the issue dissolved with no effect except the expenditure of a lot of
money and some ill-will.)  The attitude of the people I talked to (on
the advice of their lawyers) was sympathetic to publishing, but they
were worried that they might be jeopardising their ownership rights in
the current code.  They were well aware that no one could possibly
produce a competing product by starting from the Sixth Edition, but
thought more along these lines: if we (effectively) put this
>10-year-old material in the public domain, do we create the
possibility that someone will successfully claim that our current
product, a derivative of it, is also public domain?  Everyone involved
admitted that this was a slim possibility, but didn't see any
advantage in taking the risk or spending a lot of time analyzing it.

At about this point (after the sale of USL to Novell), I carefully
read the contract that created USL as a mostly-owned subsidiary of
AT&T.  It seemed to me to say clearly that the rights that were
transferred were to Unix System V as of about 1982.  Thus, I thought,
AT&T (and its Bell Labs, which we were then), owned the rights to
earlier versions and could do with them what we pleased.  Therefore, I
applied for a general release of the Sixth Edition software.  After
bouncing around for a while, this release was denied, again because of
lawyer caution.  The contract contained a phrase approximately "and
prerelease versions" which they thought might conceivably be
interpreted to apply to the Sixth Edition.  There was no economic
interest on AT&T's part, and no objection the release except not
wanting to be sued, an event admitted to be unlikely, but not so
unlikely that they were willing to sign.  The best I was able to get
was a letter saying that AT&T had no objection to republishing the
Lions material and the source, but also saying that USL would have to
agree as well.

Later, Novell agreed to sell USL to SCO, so we all tried again.
Salus, Goodheart, I and others wrote several letters to old Unix hands
at SCO, in particular Mike Tilson and Doug Michels.  For the first
several months they expressed considerable sympathy, but their own
lawyers were also worried about consequences, and since our approach
to them was made after the sale agreement but before the closing,
everyone at SCO was much more engaged with current events than with
history.

Happily, once SCO was actually in control, the efforts by Peter and
Berny reached fruition, and Mike T. and Doug M. quelled the fears of
their lawyers.  So the Lions book was republished.

More recently, Bob Supnik collected or commissioned interpreters for
several old machines from Digital and Data General and also permission
to distribute binary versions of various operating systems for them,
the Unix ones from from SCO. I wasn't involved in whatever
negotiations he conducted.

I've formed these impressions in helping to make available historical
material.

1) SCO is interested in keeping nominal rights to Unix source code as
early as the Sixth Edition research stuff, but they are generally
friendly and cooperative.

2) I am going to take the (unilateral) attitude that anything earlier
than the Sixth Edition is our property, to be made available for
scholarly purposes as I manage to work up energy to curate it.

I don't at all disagree with the purpose of the petition and support
it.  Be sure to continue with a positive and non-confrontational approach
to SCO.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Message-Id: <199707020444.OAA00243@henry.cs.adfa.oz.au>
To: wkt@henry.cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 2 Jul 1997 00:10:59 -0400
Subject: Re: early source
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I would push for a non-cash arrangement.  The stuff at the plan 9
site (the 4-disk set) and the Inferno download agreement show what
we've been able to manage.  This has seemed to satisfy the lawyers
locally.  No one smart is under the illusion that they can really
make money from this, they just don't want to do any uncompensated
work and worry about losing some sort of rights in what they do
make money from.  I guess the offers to pay are evidence of interest,
though.

Tilson is the person more friendly to Unix history and better
known to me personally, but he made it clear in my negotiations
that Michels was more in control of this (at least at the time;
things change fast).  I don't know Dion Johnson or where he fits in
but if you're making progress with him, continue!

I've been putting up stuff, mainly documents, under my home
page at
  http://cm.bell-labs.com/cs/who/dmr
The latest discoveries (not there yet) are Ken's own B manual,
and his and my document on QED (the most baroque QED ever).
Already there are versions of some other papers on early things.

As to what I have.  There is a version of the OS source as of
about August 1973, retrieved from a DECtape.  This is the earliest
currently machine-readable system source in existence, I'm pretty sure.

Other treasures:  Shamim Pirzada did most of a PhD thesis on Unix
as an exemplar of software evolution for Imperial College (London)
that (in the part I have) contains a pretty good account of details
of history up to about 1988.

I'll continue scanning this stuff in.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Wed, 17 Sep 1997 21:26:33 -0400
Subject: re: Who owns PWB/UNIX and Mini UNIX?
Status: RO
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PWB/UNIX and Mini UNIX preceded the 7th edition system.  They
were generated by organizations in Bell Labs outside our group,
and doubtless their licensing details (at the time) differed.
However, I can't see how they would have any different
descendant owner or any particular reason why they should be
treated differently from the research editions 1-7.  It's
pretty clear that Lucent as a corporation has absolutely no
interest in asserting any interest in this (i.e. claim ownership,
grant permission).  We're now fully separate from AT&T but it
is my guess that they are likely to take the same attitude
Of course I can speak even less for them than for
Lucent.

In other words, as far as I know SCO owns the game, and we
should be happy they're playing in it.  I don't know of anyone
likely to assert separate control of PWB or Mini Unix, so
whether you work on SCO about them is mainly a matter of
judgement about whether you're going back to the well too
many times.

I don't think I want to look over the proposed contract,
just because I've read more of them than is good for me,
but I do have one suggestion that worked for me at least
once (the Plan 9 shrink-wrap license).

Lawyers these days are behind the curve in these networked
days.  The original Plan 9 draft contract also had
a "one CPU" clause that was crazy for a distributed
system.  I managed to replace it with wording that just
prohibited putting the source in a place accessible by network
to non-licensees.

But this kind of negotiation is hard.

At any rate, I can't think of any reason why PWB and Mini
Unix shouldn't be treated the same as ed. 1-7.
32V is the same, by the way.  It's contemporaneous.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Message-Id: <199709210458.OAA20352@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au>
Date: Sun, 21 Sep 1997 00:18:03 -0400
Subject: re: Who owns the 6th & 7th Edition Manuals?
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au, dionj@sco.com
Status: RO
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The 7th edition manuals have been available for some while on
our own server, and are currently at http://cm.bell-labs.com/7thEdMan.
This is a synonym for http://netlib.bell-labs.com/7thEdMan,
and it's doubtless reachable otherwise.

The version at ftp://elib.zib.de/pub/netlib/att/cs/v7man/README
looks like a mirror of an older version (at least of the
README).

Unlike code, which is involved with perhaps complicated
trade secret and other ownership issues, old manuals
that were released publicly and genuinely published
(e.g. the 7th edition Unix manual, by Saunders College
Publishing) are subject only to plain old copyright.
Unless there is some document I haven't seen, I don't
think that SCO has any exclusive copyright in manuals
published in 1979 by us.

Warren, so far as I know you're welcome to mirror our
version of the manual or link to it, just as Wolfram did.
Incidentally, I don't have online versions of any earlier
research manuals (1-6), but would be happy to get
and archive whatever you have.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Dion <dionj@sco.COM>
X-Mailer: SCO OpenServer Mail Release 5.0
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com, wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Subject: Re: Who owns the 6th & 7th Edition Manuals?
Date: Mon, 22 Sep 97 10:53:30 PDT
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I am sure Dennis is right and that you can go ahead and put these
online.

Dion L. Johnson II  - The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.              dionj@sco.com
Czar of Free Stuff and Technical customers' advocate.
400 Encinal St.  Santa Cruz, CA 95061    FAX: 408-427-5417  Voice: 408-427-7565

	From sco.sco.com!plan9.bell-labs.com!dmr Sat Sep 20 22:26:06 1997
	From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
	Date: Sun, 21 Sep 1997 00:18:03 -0400
	Subject: re: Who owns the 6th & 7th Edition Manuals?
	To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au, dionj@sco.com
	Status: RO
	
	The 7th edition manuals have been available for some while on
	our own server, and are currently at http://cm.bell-labs.com/7thEdMan.
	This is a synonym for http://netlib.bell-labs.com/7thEdMan,
	and it's doubtless reachable otherwise.
	
	The version at ftp://elib.zib.de/pub/netlib/att/cs/v7man/README
	looks like a mirror of an older version (at least of the
	README).
	
	Unlike code, which is involved with perhaps complicated
	trade secret and other ownership issues, old manuals
	that were released publicly and genuinely published
	(e.g. the 7th edition Unix manual, by Saunders College
	Publishing) are subject only to plain old copyright.
	Unless there is some document I haven't seen, I don't
	think that SCO has any exclusive copyright in manuals
	published in 1979 by us.
	
	Warren, so far as I know you're welcome to mirror our
	version of the manual or link to it, just as Wolfram did.
	Incidentally, I don't have online versions of any earlier
	research manuals (1-6), but would be happy to get
	and archive whatever you have.
	
		Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Message-Id: <199709220650.QAA15742@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au>
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Mon, 22 Sep 1997 02:49:40 -0400
Subject: Re: Who owns the 6th & 7th Edition Manuals?
Status: RO
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It turns out that the 6th edition is indeed online, it's just
not mounted by my shell script.  It's the same, I'm sure,
as what I sent you.

I've been thinking about how best to revive the earliest stuff.
The first manuals will have to be scanned in, but there's
someone here who's interested.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Message-Id: <199709230549.PAA17321@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au>
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Date: Tue, 23 Sep 1997 01:49:21 -0400
Subject: history
Status: RO
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I poked around in some local material, and slightly burnished up one
bit of memorabilia.  It's at http://cm.bell-labs.com/cs/who/dmr/notes.html
(also referred to on my WWW page).

I think the next project is to scan in the 1st Edition manual.
Probably this will just be in PDF image format, but maybe
we'll run the OCR over it.

Another source of old stuff is the DECtapes that were read some
years ago, from which the above notes were retrieved.

Here are the notes I made at the time concerning the collection.
What do you think is most interesting?

		Dennis

---
The files here were read from old DECtapes made in the early 1970s.
Paul Vixie and Keith Bostic unearthed a DECtape drive and
made it work, we unearthed the tapes.

The tapes were written in either the 'tap' or 'tp' format,
which are similar in that they have a directory of up to 192
entries at the start with names and other information including
the size and tape address of the files.  'tp' was the later
format, and was in use by November 1973, the date of the 4th edition manual.
With `tap', the times associated with the files were recorded
in pre-modern units: sixtieths of a second, from an origin that
changed.  The first three editions of the manual had BUGS sections
noting that 32 bits can represent only about 2.5 years in this
unit, and this implied continuing crises as the time overflowed.

I believe that the change to use seconds for Unix time took place
along with the change to the C version of the operating system, which
occurred about the end of the summer of 1973, and also that the change
from `tap' to `tp' took place at the same time.  (This is consistent
with the dates of the 3rd and 4th edition manuals).

Thus the dates recorded with the `tp' tapes probably correspond
reliably to the modification dates of the files at the time
of saving them (of course, this gives only a upper bound on
their creation, since they might have been copied or trivially
touched just before saving them).

Recovering the proper dates for the `tap' tapes is less reliable,
because there was at least one change of epoch (from 1971 to 1972)
during the period they could possibly have been produced.
I believe that the 1972 epoch is most likely the correct one
for the tapes here.

apl
	Ken's apl program, together with his rendition of
	astro (translated from Morris's Fortran).
	Probably OK dates, 1975-76.

config
	Ken's program for configuring PDP11s.  It told you
	price, maintenance, checked for bus loading.
	Interesting for DEC price lists in 1974.


dmr
	Random stuff from my directory.  Most probable dates: 1972.
	The `paper' directory contains a version
	of the original SOSP Unix paper (haven't compared
	it with the CACM version).
	cgd appears to be an experiment in converting
	Fortran threaded code to machine language,
	using a warmed over version of the earliest C
	code generator.  It's written in NB, not C.
	fd is some fortran programs, in particular a
	polynomial root-finder I found somewhere.

	aman is some version of the PDP-11 assembler manual.
	fd is a fortran program for plotting functions
	of 2 variables.

	notes1 and notes2 are evidently notes I made for myself
	for a talk on unix.  They are quite interesting.

	tty.s is evidently the terminal processing routine for an
	assembly-language version of unix.  note that it handles
	IBM 2741 terminals with two kinds of typeballs
	(938 and correspondence).

	crypt.c encrypts using a variant of the Hagelin machine.

	pig.b is an interesting artifact:  it is a B program
	that echoes what you type in Pig latin.  (Incidentally,
	there is a translation of this program into C, dated 1978,
	in a subdirectory that still spins on a disk attached to
	the Unix machine where I get my mail.)

dmr2
	the let directory contains drafts of a bunch of letters
	to people who asked about unix in early days.  (lett6
	is to andy tanenbaum).

	The let directory contains drafts of a bunch of letters
	to people who asked about unix in early days.  (lett6
	is to andy tanenbaum).

	Other bits: restric discusses some early thoughts
	about types in C.  I don't know who it was addressed
	to (perhaps even to myself).  ct is an even briefer
	list about what I though was important.

	iosys is a manual for writing system device drivers.

e-pi
	Our programs to compute e and pi to a million places.
	The one for e worked; it took some months on a time-shared
	PDP-11 without memory mapping.
	Incidentally the <SO>J<SI> directory name is correct:
	this sequence printed the greek letter pi on a Teletype
	model 37.  Plan 9 won't let me create this.  It wants
	me to use Unicode!

games
	Ken's work on various games.  Check out chomp/c0.c,
	which has a briefly-existing form of structure
	declaration using parentheses instead of braces.

ken
	check out the values of the AT&T Savings plan in the
	early 70s (plan), and what interested Ken's son (corey/*)
	then.

ken-du
	Here, you can read our wtmp files from 1974 and 1975.

ken-sky
	A bunch of interesting old ken stuff (eg a version of
	the units program from the days when the dollar fetched
	302.7 yen)

last1120c
	The source for a version of C that compiled for the
	PDP-11/20.  It didn't have structures, it didn't have
	#define, and pointers were declared p[].  But look!
	The initialization routine says

		init("float", 2);
		init("double", 3);
	/*	init("long", 4);  */
		init("auto", 5);
		init("extern", 6);

nsys
	If the decoding of the date on the tape is correct (Aug 1973),
	this is the source for the earliest C version of Unix
	likely to be recovered.  `nsys' meant the C version
	rather than the assembly version, and Aug 73 is plausible for
	a running instance of this system.

prestruct-c
	This is approximately the same era as `last1120c,'
	but 6 months later; despite the name, this compiler now
	handles structures.  (The struct keyword
	has displaced `long' as keyword number 4!)  The name of
	the tape indicates that the state of the compiler
	was saved just before converting it to use structures
	inside itself.

	The compiler is much less complete--just
	the c??.c files, not the tables for code generation.


s1
	I haven't cracked this yet.

s2
	Is not source, but a dump of (parts of) /bin, /etc,
	/usr/lib, and bits of a few other directories.
	Caution!  The tape uses absolute pathnames,
	and is dangerous to extract unless you want to install
	old PDP-11 binaries.  (tap format).

sys-dsu
	This system didn't come directly from us.  After
	poking around it for a while I found a file containing
	this (in cr.h):

	/*****************************************************************
	 **								**
	 **		   U C L A  Data Secure Unix			**
	 **								**
	 **			Copyright 1977				**
	 **								**
	 **    Mark Kampe, Charles Kline, Gerald Popek, Evelyn Walton	**
	 **								**
	 *****************************************************************/

	So, it appears that `dsu' is `data-secure unix' and this is a
	record of one of the early security projects!  They must
	have sent it to us.  Might be fun to examine it; I suppose
	we should tell Gerry Popek of its existence.


unix
	This is probably a `boot' tape; it has binary images of
	the system and some raw utility programs for use when booting
	(memory testers, loaders for diagnostics, and the like).





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
X-source-folder: /home/wkt/Mail_archive/1998/02/25
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Date: Wed, 25 Feb 1998 17:25:30 -0500
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Cool!  Did I ever tell you about what I tried when the USL-
BSDI suit started?  I looked very carefully at the document
that spun off USL from AT&T, and it appeared to me that
the IP that was transferred was SV and later.   So I filed
for a software release for 32V and earlier systems.
However, the lawyers were too cautious.  There was
a phrase that they thought could be interpreted as
applying that far back.  They didn't really think it did,
but they're very conservative.

Glad that SCO is more sensible (though they take their
time....)

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Wed, 15 Apr 1998 00:56:43 -0400
Subject: Re: Old Unix Stuff: again
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au, sms@moe.2bsd.com
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I'd love a copy of the CD.

	D.M.Ritchie
	Bell Labs rm 2C517
	600 Mountain Ave
	Murray Hill   NJ 07974    USA

I don't clearly remember V7M R2.1 but I believe we put something
together that included some of the changes in C.  Probably enums,
identification of structure names with tags, structure passing.
I'll take a look at the material and guess where it fits in.

	Dennis

----
Hi Dennis,
	
	I hope I'm not disturbing you. As you know, SCO are now selling
source licenses for 5th, 6th, 7th Edition UNIX and 32V. We are just about
to burn CDs which contain our archive, for distribution to licencees.

If you would like a copy, gratis, please pass your details on to
Steven Schultz sms@moe.2bsd.com, who will send you a CD.

A new addition to the archive is something called V7M Release 2.1,
dated August 1981. This appears to be a major upgrade from 7th Edition,
including the v7addenda stuff.

Do you know who put this together? The person who donated it says the
tape came from DEC, but the tape's contents don't nominate the ``author''.

Thanks again!

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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The stuff with Canter must have been Digital's collection.

The addenda tape was probably ours.  The phrasing of the comments
is familiar, and no one else would supply a new awk and fortran
at that point.  12/2/80 in the US would definitely be December.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Message-Id: <199804250420.OAA03092@henry.cs.adfa.oz.au>
Date: Sat, 25 Apr 1998 00:20:11 -0400
Subject: Re: Old Unix Stuff: again
To: sms@moe.2bsd.com, wkt@henry.cs.adfa.oz.au
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 > It's on the way. 

Thanks.

By the way, you might be interested in http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/~dmr/manintro.tif
(if you have a TIFF viewer) or the .html version of the same thing.  It's the start
of the 1st edition manual, Nov. 1973.  I've got some more scanned in, but the OCR
is going to be hell to correct.    Also I suspect that some other graphics format
is likely to be friendlier for most people's browsers.

(None of this is linked to on the home page yet.)

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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No, I'm thinking specifically of a shirt distributed by Digital, with
an image done in near-realtime by Armando.   He couldn't have
done it on the spot (it's too complicated and too correct) but
it is from an overhead slide he more likely made the night
before a talk.   It is hand-done.  It is approximately correct.
It's a tree like your PS one and stops at the bottom with arrows
pointing from the circle with Unix/TS to "more TS stuff/System III & V"
and "4.2 BSD".  A  hard-to-read notice says "Copyright DEC A. Stettner
4/14/87."  This date could be '89; it's hard to read.

The only other person I've seen with this is Norman Wilson.  He's washed
his more than I have; I wear mine only at Usenix, and not every year.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I'll see what I can do, especially about the photo.  I don't have it;  it's
likely in the archives, since someone found it to put on the corporate
WWW pages.

Incidentally, a scan of Armando Stettner's T-shirt family tree would
be appropriate too.  I wonder, does a T-shirt scan?

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Get the T-shirt at http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/~dmr/unixtree.tif
Even the original is somewhat unreadable.

The PR guy is going to look for the console photo.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Wed, 6 Jan 1999 22:36:41 -0500
Subject: Re: V8's roots?
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I also got mail from Norman Wilson today about the discussion.

This is mainly to confirm and fill out details of Wilson's account.

The Eighth Edition system started with (I believe) BSD 4.1c and
the work was done on VAX 11/750s -- our group did not get
a 780 until a while later.

Most of the operating system superstructure of BSD was retained
(in particular no one (even the indefatigable Norman)
wanted to get much into the paging code.  Norman is also
right that the competitor was John Reiser's (and Tom London's)
32V descendant from another group at the Labs.  In structure
this system had a lot to offer (in particular the buffer cache and the page
pool were unified, but it was clear that their work was not being
supported by their own management.  It was used for a while on
our first 750 and also our first 11/780 ("alice", a name that lives
in netnews fame preceding  the reach of Dejanews).

The big change leading to V8 was the scooping-out and replacement of
the character-device and networking part by the streams mechanism.  Later,
Peter Weinberger added the file-system switch that enabled
remote file systems and prescient things ideas like /proc).  Weinberger,
as Norman said, also did a simple-minded FFS.

The TCP/IP stack wasn't very important to us then and it has a mixed and
murky history.  Much of it came from early CSRG work, but it was converted
to a streams approach by Robert Morris and subsequently fiddled over a lot.

Likewise, as Norman said, the applications (/bin and whatnot) were somewhat
of a mixture.  Many were the locally-done versions, some were taken
from BSD in some incarnation, some from System V.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I was looking again at the revived dectapes I got.
Would you like a copy of the first 11/45 system?
If my decoding of the date on the tape is correct,
it's from January 1973.  This is at least consistent
with the 3rd and 4th edition manuals (3rd wasn't
the C system, 4th (Nov 73) was.

I would assume that the same SCO license would
apply to it as to the other research editions.

It consists of the OS only.  I suspect it expects
the same disk layout as the 5th edition.  It is
source only (there is a file called u that might
be a kernel image).  It's for an 11/45..

Incidentally, before the 5th there is no real notion
of release (software correlated with manual) because
people got whatever software was on the disk when
they took it.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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OK, if you anonymous ftp to plan9.bell-labs.com, in /cm/cs/who/dmr/nsys
you should find nsys.tar and README.  nsys.tar is a mere 194KB. 

Licensing--

 > Yes, although you yourself expressed doubt that editions before
 > 6th were really passed (via USL) to Novell & thence to SCO.

If we had wanted to pay lawyers we could have made the
case that research versions were ours to distribute.  We didn't
want to spend the effort, especially once SCO turned nice.

The SCO license is evidently enough (even though it's a bit hard to decide
whether this is 2, 3, 4, it's covered well enough.)  I haven't poked
closely enough into the PUPS pages to discover how (in practice)
you really handle distribution today.  (You refer to "getting helpers
to make disks/tapes")  This particular thing is small enough that Internet
download is quite practical.  Of course it is presumably of interest
only to those who already have an 11/45 or a good-enough
simulator, or just want to study.

I got the enquiry about V8 and subseq.  This begins to get more
complicated.  For sure it would involve new negotiations with
SCO.  It's possible that, the sky not having fallen, they would
be even nicer now.   But since I'm just now involved in
hot-and-heavy jousting about Inferno, Plan 9, Brazil
I don't have the stomach to open another legal battle at the
moment.

Let me know if/when you pick up the nsys stuff.   Right now
it's not linked on my home page and thus isn't obviously
visible, but it is there for ftp if people poke around.  I'll put
in some home page links to the PUPS material (including this)
once you've figured out how to integrate it.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > Do you think Lucent owns these systems? Do you think they might
 > eventually be prepared to sell licenses? I'll ask my SCO contacts
 > and find out who they think owns V8, 9 and 10. :-)

The v8 etc situation is more complicated because not only do
they begin to incorporate Sys/V material that is closer to SCO's heart,
and clearly after the separation of USL->...->SCO, but begins
to get into Lucent stuff that I'd have to justify inside the company.

I'll try to find time to package up at least one of the early C compilers.
Theoretically it has all the same problems as the OS but I believe
that the possible lawyer-interest problem is in practice nonexistent.
It's more a matter of proper curating of the material.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Sun, 10 Jan 1999 22:53:09 -0500
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 > 	I've managed to compile the nsys kernel source code using a
 > 5th Edition environment. Changes to the src were: ...

Astonishing.  When booting it might be best to start
with an init that just does
  open(something);
  open(something);
  write(1, "Hello\n", 6);

It might even be appropriate to try first with just  abort();
to see if /etc/init can be read,

Abt previous mail, I did indeed have passworded access to the archives
in the past, but have naturally forgotten which password I might
have chosen.   So far I'm managed not to get myself registered
for ssh things.  If there's a page or so about access, the
fax # is +1 908 582 5857, if there isn't enough info available
inside PUPS itself or by email.

Incidentally I am getting mail from one of the Bell Labs PR
people who is wanting to do some sort of stuff about
the 30th anniversary.  I may somehow involve you in this,
though I did begin negotiations by asking him to find
out who came up with the admonition "Fest me no schrifts."

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199901102347.KAA01229@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Compilation of nsys kernel
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com (Dennis Ritchie)
Date: Mon, 11 Jan 1999 10:47:02 +1100 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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Dennis,
	I've managed to compile the nsys kernel source code using a
5th Edition environment. Changes to the src were:

nsys/user.h: change of struct declaration for v5 c compiler
	() at lines 17,20 -> {}

nsys/tty.h: missing ; on line 5 at end of struct clist

nsys/dmr/tty.c: v5 cc complained, I modified code to look like v5 tty.c code

206c206,207
<       if ((c=&0177)==004 && (rtp->t_flags&RAW)==0)
---
>       c=c&0177;
>       if (c==004 && (rtp->t_flags&RAW)==0)

nsys/ken/sig.c: had to modify a bit as v5 cc complained of expression syntax

<               suword(u.u_ar0[R6]=-2, u.u_ar0[RPS]);
<               suword(u.u_ar0[R6]=-2, u.u_ar0[R7]);
---
>               u.u_ar0[R6] = u.u_ar0[R6] - 2;
>               suword(u.u_ar0[R6], u.u_ar0[RPS]);
>               u.u_ar0[R6] = u.u_ar0[R6] - 2;
>               suword(u.u_ar0[R6], u.u_ar0[R7]);

nsys/ken/45.s: I've borrowed rsave and rretrn from v5 kernel, because v5 c
	compiler puts in rsave calls, and so I had to include this, and v3
	rretrn wasn't going to be compatible with v5 rsave.

320,324c320,338
< .globl retrn
< retrn:
<       mov     r5,sp
<       mov     (sp)+,r5
<       rts     pc
---
> .globl  rsave
> rsave:
>       mov     r5,r0
>       mov     sp,r5
>       mov     r4,-(sp)
>       mov     r3,-(sp)
>       mov     r2,-(sp)
>       sub     (r0)+,sp
>       jmp     (r0)
> 
> .globl rretrn
> rretrn:
>       sub     $6,r5
>       mov     r5,sp
>       mov     (sp)+,r2
>       mov     (sp)+,r3
>       mov     (sp)+,r4
>       mov     (sp)+,r5
>       rts     pc

With these changes, I then did:
	cc -c -O ken/*.c, and   as all ken/*.s
	cc -c -O dmr/*.c, and   as all dmrken/*.s
	cc -c -O tables.c and   as junk/ustr.s

Finally:
	ld -X tables.o dmr/*.o ken/*.o
        junk/ustr
        strip a.out
        mv a.out unix

This results in: 

-rw-r--r--  1 root    26240 Jan 10 18:34 u
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root    26256 Jan 10 18:34 unix

where u is the kernel originally from the nsys archive, and unix is the
one just compiled above. I'll try booting them sometime this week,
again using a v5 filesystem and environment on an 11/45.

Cheers,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Keys said (when I mentioned your tries)

 > Ohhh, neato!  Let us keep fingers crossed, knock on wood 3 times,
 > cow-tow as appropriate, rub the rabbit's foot, throw salt before
 > the sumo ring, .... and anything else?.....(:+}}....

 > Glad Warren is getting it there.   If it runs, it should be a real
 > treasure.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > Dennis, forgot to cc that last email to Bob Keys. Can you do?

Done.  Cheers and carry on!

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I forget whether I mentioned this, but the project is
more more alive than I thought.   Mike Mahoney has
many HTML transcripts, groomed considerably in
the course of a freshman class he gave at Princeton
about a year ago.  I've been discussing with him and
the local PR people how to present the material and
deal with any rights issues.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999 23:40:01 -0500
To: wkt@cs.adfa.oz.au
Subject: Re: Dating the addition of pipes in UNIX (etc.)
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I thought I sent congratulations on the getting the nsys
kernel not only to boot but do ls.  If not, congratulations!
Do record the changes that were made.

I don't know who now has copies of the audio tapes from
the oral history thing.  Originals would be either in the Lucent
or AT&T archives; I suspect Mahoney has copies, given that
this was worked over again a year ago.  Mahoney's somewhat
secret web site has the transcripts in HTML.  I'm working out with
him and the Bell Labs PR group how best to make them available.

The "2nd Edition" Dectape that McKie got was almost certainly
a boot tape with a system image and a couple of utilities.
(I just showed him what I have and asked).

Hunting the <=4th edition: remember that it was only starting
with the 5th edition system that there was any kind of collected
entity that was coordinated with a manual.  We produced
several manuals, each with a nominal date,
 describing a current state of things, but prepared over several
months; what actual software people got was a copy of our disk
at the instant they visited.
It was almost always on RK03/RK05 disk packs, not magtape.
Nice if one of these disk packs could be found and read.

Proper dating of these things is hard.  You observe correctly that
"sys pipe" was anticipated on the "nsys" system but not implemented.
I'm a bit doubtful on the clean-looking Jan 22 1973 date on "nsys".
I might have botched the interpretation of the bytes in the date field,
and also there is even a year-off possibility because we changed
epochs more than once and rewrote some of the existing DECtapes
to reflect this.

Best reconstruction:  During 1972, Ken finally puts pipes into Unix
at McIlroy's urging--one of the interesting parts of the Oral History
transcripts is

  MSM: I do want to talk about pipes, because Ritchie says in his retrospective that,
  not only was it your suggestion, but indeed, he suggests, at your insistence.

  McIlroy: That is one of the only places where, I very nearly exerted managerial
  control over UNIX, in pushing for those things.  Yes.

Kind of simultanenously, Ken did two tries at a C version of the system,
once probably during maybe 1972, then in 1973.  The first was abortive and
leaves no trace.  Difficulties were partly
because he had trouble with design of the process-exchange/coroutining
primitives, also because structures weren't in C yet.  In 1973 he tried
again.  If the dates on the "nsys" tape are understood right and believed,
this was early in the year.

I'm pretty sure that we didn't adopt it as
the standard "production" system until about September 1973.  It is
very likely that the real "sys" was still in assembler.   Pipes were probably
added first to this version, given the evidence in "nsys."

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199901182229.JAA01710@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: DECtape with V2
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com (Dennis Ritchie)
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 09:29:23 +1100 (EST)
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Dennis,
	I forgot that attachment, it's on the end of this email. Now, about
that V2 DECtape. In the July 1984 issue of ;login: there is a Unix trivia quiz.
At the top, it says:

	The following quiz was distributed at the Salt Lake City conference
by Rob Pike... Jim McKie had the best score for an individual (57) and was
awarded an authenticated 1972 DECtape containing UNIX Version 2.

In 1995, I emailed Jim and asked him what had happened to the tape? He
replied:

	a couple of years ago we sent that dectape along with a bunch of
	others we found under to floor to keith bostic at berkeley who
	had resurrected a dectape drive. i don't remember getting it back.
	i'll enquire.

	i loved pdp11's.

So I assume that it must have been one of the DECtapes you had Keith read.
However, somehow it got lost because you haven't mentioned it.

So: do you guys still have those DECtapes, or does Keith have them? Would
it be possible to sort through the box and see if any of the tapes might
be the one that Jim won?

I know it's unlikely to turn up, but it's worth just another look. I'm
sure if the tape is found, we can get it read somehow.

Thanks again,

	Warren



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end
userdict /end-hook known{end-hook}if
%%EOF

--ELM916698563-1701-0_--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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	(envelope-from wkt)
From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199901182353.KAA01921@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Dating the addition of pipes in UNIX
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com (Dennis Ritchie)
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 10:53:28 +1100 (EST)
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Dennis,
	Let me know if I'm bothering you with all of this email. I'm sure
that you've got other, better things to do than answer questions about old
stuff.

I'd love to know if anybody can remember the date that Ken hacked pipes
into the Unix kernel. The nsys kernel is dated Jan 22 1973, and Peter
Salus' book say that the 3rd Edition manuals came out in February 1973.

Now, nsys doesn't have pipes, but has a system call reserved for pipes:

	   0, &nosys,                      /* 42 = pipe */

If the 3rd Edition manuals did come out in February, and nsys didn't have
pipes in late January, then they must have been added during that interval.


Also, was there a period when the kernel was being developed both in
assembly language and in a HLL (pre-C)? You've said that ``Ken started
trying [to rewrite the kernel in C] in the summer of 1972 and gave up. ...
Over the year, I added structures ... and so over the next summer, we made
the concerted effort and actually did redo the whole operating system in C.''

If nsys is dated January 1972 (i.e your winter), then either you last
statement isn't quite correct, or nsys was a snapshot of a parallel
development which culminated in a new system by summer 1973.

Thanks again,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199901190452.PAA02648@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Dating the addition of pipes in UNIX (etc.)
In-Reply-To: <199901190439.PAA03516@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 18, 1999 11:40: 1 pm"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 15:52:57 +1100 (EST)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> I thought I sent congratulations on the getting the nsys
> kernel not only to boot but do ls.  If not, congratulations!
> Do record the changes that were made.

Thanks Dennis, the attached PostScript file I sent you has details of
the changes. I was worried that my email hadn't reached you; glad it did.

I've also been reading through the papers in the AT&T Bell Laboratories
Technical Journal Vol 63, No 8, Part 2, October 1984. They have helped
to answer some/most of the questions that I had asked you.

I don't personally own either of AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Journal
Vol 63, No 8, Part 2, October 1984, or The Bell System Technical Journal 
Vol 57, No 6, Part 2, July-August 1978. Does Lucent sell back-copies?
This might be an idea for the 30 years celebration.

> Mahoney's somewhat
> secret web site has the transcripts in HTML.  I'm working out with
> him and the Bell Labs PR group how best to make them available.

Excellent.
 
> The "2nd Edition" Dectape that McKie got was almost certainly
> a boot tape with a system image and a couple of utilities.
> (I just showed him what I have and asked).

Even that would be a useful addition to the archives. I can't promise
that I can boot it, this time :-) I assume this is either the tape
`s2' or `unix' that you mentioned previously in your email.
 
> Hunting the <=4th edition: remember that it was only starting
> with the 5th edition system that there was any kind of collected
> entity that was coordinated with a manual. ...
> It was almost always on RK03/RK05 disk packs, not magtape.
> Nice if one of these disk packs could be found and read.

Do you think it would be worth approaching these institutions, anyway?
They might have made, and kept, backup tapes.
 
> Proper dating of these things is hard.  You observe correctly that
> "sys pipe" was anticipated on the "nsys" system but not implemented.
> I'm a bit doubtful on the clean-looking Jan 22 1973 date on "nsys".
> I might have botched the interpretation of the bytes in the date field,
> and also there is even a year-off possibility because we changed
> epochs more than once and rewrote some of the existing DECtapes
> to reflect this.

In that case, would you be prepared to send your tap-reading program,
and the tap tape image of `nsys' (and any other tap images) for me to
peruse? I've already  written a tp(1) format reader by reverse-engineering
the tp format.
 
> I'm pretty sure that we didn't adopt [the C version of UNIX] as
> the standard "production" system until about September 1973.  It is
> very likely that the real "sys" was still in assembler.   Pipes were probably
> added first to this version, given the evidence in "nsys."

I suspected that you would have done development in parallel, and although
this is not explicitly stated, I formed that impression while reading
through the BSTJ Vol 63, No 8.

Many thanks again for replying to my intrusions.

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I've got some suggested emendations and amplifications
that I intend to relate.  Bug me if I don't get to it soon.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Some comments.  They're not really corrections to a timeline,
and are mostly amplifications.  Perhaps they suggest possible
changes to the wording.


-----


		   Early dates of UNIX Development

As accurately as we can tell, anyway! References given where possible.

1969
	Unknown: Ken creates `Space Travel'. It was first written on Multics,
		then transliterated into Fortran for GECOS, then Ken and
		Dennis rewrote Space Travel to run on the PDP-7
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html]

	Mid-year: Bell Labs withdraws from the Multics project
		  [QCU pg 8]
This date is probably OK for the official withdrawal, but the event
was considerably more spread-out.  It was pretty obvious many months
in advance that the support was likely to go away, and the machine
stayed around for months after.

	April, May, June: Ken is interested in writing a file system
		  [QCU pg 8]
The interest was older than this.  He did experiments with simulation
of paging on Multics, for example.  He also wrote a rudimentary,
completely stand-alone system for the Multics machine that achieved
the equivalent of "Hello World" but gave it up when it became obvious
that the hardware would not last.

	Mid-year: Ken brings the file system to life on the PDP-7 in a month
		  [QCU pg 10]

The missing sequence here is that by the time B was developed, PDP-7 Unix
was a 2-user system that already did a basic core of ancestral commands
and was self-supporting (development done on itself).  So during the next
months, extending into 1970, a useful programming environment visibly
ancestral to current Unix was developed.  B was just a part of this.

	Unknown: Ken develops the B language
		  [QCU pg 34],
		  [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html]

1970
	Unknown: Peter Neumann coins the term `Unics', which is
		subsequently changed to `Unix'
		  [QCU pg 9]

	Unknown: Alternatively, Brian Kernighan suggests the name `Unix'
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html]

The details here remain satisfyingly uncertain.   Brian does think
he's likely to have invented the name; in recent correspondence,
Neumann imagines he might have come up with "unics", but definitely not
"unix."  Each is willing to concede to the other; neither is really sure.
I retain a suspicion that I'm responsible for the Neumann attribution
simply because I didn't remember then or now, and Neumann's
punful propensity suggested his authorship, and now we're stuck
with this guess.

	Mid-year: The PDP-11/20 is purchased, with no disk drives
		[QCU pg 35],
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html]

	3 months later: The disks arrive
		  [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html]

	Unknown: Ken recodes the Unix kernel and some commands in PDP-11
		assembly code
		  [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html]

Actually much of the recoding even occurred before the disk was delivered.
The basic system was running and executing commands, with
a basic shell, cp and whatnot.   The 12KWords were divided into
8KB for the system code and data, 8KB for running user programs,
8KB for an in-memory file system.  This all used a cross-assembler
written in B that ran on the PDP-7 and generated the -11 object
programs.

1971
	January-March: PDP-11 version largely rewritten during this period
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/notes.html]
Despite the above paragraph, it's true enough that the PDP-11 (with
an 8KB "disk") couldn't be used for selt-supporting development.

	February: PDP-11 Unix beccomes ``operational''
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/cacm.html]

	Unknown: Dennis extends B to be NB
		  [http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html]

Maybe "throughout"?  The point is that although it's true enough
that I can't reconstruct the dates, it also wasn't an event, it was
a process.

	Spring: roff rewritten in PDP-11 assembler language, starting from
		the PDP-7 version that had been transliterated from
		McIlroy's BCPL version on Multics, which had in turn been
		inspired by J. Saltzer's runoff program on CTSS
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html]
	
	November: First Edition manuals were published
		  [QCU pg 43]

1972
	January: The Labs issues a technical memorandum, written by Ken,
		describing the B language on the PDP-11
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/kbman.html]

I just found a manuscript dated 27 July 1971, that has essentially the
same content as the more formal memorandum.

	March: First manual for cc(1)
		  [QCU pg 48]

	March: UNIX is running on at least 5 PDP-11/20s
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/notes.html]

	June: DEC starts to ship the PDP-11/45. The Labs purchases one
		sonn after this
		[http://www.village.org/pdp11/faq.pages/11model.html]
soon

	June: Second Edition manuals were published. 10 UNIX installations
		  [QCU pg 43]

	Unknown: Ken adds pipes to the assembly-language version of the kernel
		[QCU pg 51],
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/hist.html]

1973
	January: the `nsys' kernel in the PUPS archive, written in C
		[timestamps on the files]

This is a bit problematical.  The dates you see are those recovered
from bytes on a tape; they might be wrong because of misinterpretation,
or uncertainty about the epoch.  It could be correct.  The September
date below (switching over to the C version of the system, an early
version of which is the "nsys" system) is probably OK.

	February: Third Edition manuals were published. 16 UNIX installations
		  [QCU pg 43]
		  Kernel is still the assembly-language version
		  [private email from dmr dated 7 Jan 1999]

	September: The C version of the kernel is adopted over the
		assembly-language version
		  [private email from dmr dated 18 Jan 1999]

	October: First UNIX paper, presented by Ken at the Fourth
    		ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/cacm.html]

	November: Fourth Edition manuals were published
		  [QCU pg 43]

1974
	June: Fifth Edition manuals were published
		  [QCU pg 43]

This was the first Unix distribution in which the manual was coordinated
with a recorded set of software.   Before this, when people got the software,
they got what was on the disk at the moment and whatever manual
we'd most recently printed.   The Fifth Edition was all collected in one
reasonably coherent piece on tape.


	July: Ken's SOSP published in Communications of the ACM, 17, No. 7
		[http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/cacm.html]
Well, mine too.  The paper was always nominally co-written, though
I did the writing (and Ken did most the ideas and more of the work).
He was indeed the speaker at the SOSP session at Yorktown Heights.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > I was idly thinking, now that I've completed my Ph.D, if Bell Labs
 > would take someone for a sabbatical in a few years, perhaps for some
 > (current) Operating Systems work.

Posed as is, the answer is "sure."  We have such visitors all the time.
When the time comes, the specifics will need to be discussed
in more detail, of course.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Abt the the SOSP reference, I was correcting a typo, not responding
in high dudgeon, I assure you.

More than interesting to see the johnh mail about reviving this
on a real 11/45 with real RK05s.   Amazing, in fact.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Norman sent me a version of this a couple of days ago.
I suggested some minor fixes.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Message-Id: <199902030347.OAA03592@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Date: Tue, 2 Feb 1999 21:59:52 -0500
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Glad Patrick found and sent on the higher-res image.
He didn't mention to me that he'd turned it up
(or his communication got lost amidst the other
PR things we've been dealing with--in the event,
I just fetched it all the way from Australia instead
of across the campus.)

It certainly is utterly diagnostic on the TTYs.

The cabinet on the left might be be a tape controller
(especially given the 12" magtapes atop). But although
we might be chunky enough to conceal the transport, I
suspect the leftmost cabinet had the RF11/RS11 fixed-head
disks

I'm still wondering about the display, but I guess it must
be there. Later it was put on one shelf of another rack on
the right.  Not too long after, another rack with the controller
for the RP03s arrived and it would be on the left.  

Maybe I should be most impressed by the abundance of
not-gray hair.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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You mean like this?  I dunno, somehow it gets dealt with, sometimes
by ignoring.  This was a more active day than usual.

	D.


To: dmr@bell-labs.com
Date: Tue Feb  2 12:01
From: jla@pcdaltabuit.dgsca.unam.mx (Jose Luis Abelleyra)
Hello: 
Apparently-To: dmr@bell-labs.com

	My name is Jose Luis Abelleyra R. and I'm a college student. I'm iterested on the details of the C languege and that's why I'm writing you now. Would you mind telling me where I can find a/the C language specification for free? I'll be thankful at you.

 				Thanks a lot!
----

>From mail.usask.ca!nmm367	Mon Feb  1 18:58
From: Naiden M Markachev <nmm367@mail.usask.ca>
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: Re: A quick question.

Hello Sir!

About ten days ago I asked you for an eventual interview for the all
canadian computer science students magazine that we started here at the
Univeristy of Saskatchewan. The pilot issue is already a fact! :)
You can have a look at it at:

http://magazine.usask.ca

-----

>From mfasia.com.sg!isabelle_chan Tue Feb  2 06:07:05 EST 1999
To: dmr@bell-labs.com
From: Isabelle Chan <isabelle_chan@mfasia.com.sg>
Subject: Comments on Linux

Dear Dennis,

I hope you remember me. We met early last year in Singapore during an
interview arranged  by Jessica. I'm doing a story on Linux, and would
appreciate it if you give me some comments on the following:

1) Although Linux has been around for a long time, and has a loyal
following, what are the reasons for the "sudden" huge interest in
corporates (reasons other than users owning the source code and it being
cheap?  .....





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Fri, 5 Feb 1999 20:25:47 -0500
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I resampled the very big image down to WWW-friendly size
(but better than the one in the lucent.com museum) and put
it under my home page with an approximately consensus account
of the kit that is visible.  The leftmost cabinet's lights seem
isomorphic to those on the RF11 controller pictured in the old
Peripherals Handbook I have.

John,

 > I'm starting to miss the 'good old days', where I could track faults down to
 > chip level using a CRO and circuits ....

Have you checked out the KS-11 story?  It's in
 http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/odd.html

	Best regards,
	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I got substantially the same letter from Peng.  I had already mentioned
the possibility of another reprint of the BSTJ/AT&TTJ issues to the
PR people, but haven't pursued the matter.  I do note that this already happened
once:  there are two volumes entitled Unix System: Readings and
Applications (v I and II), with ISBN 0-13-938532-0 and
0-13-939845-7) published in 1987 by Prentice-Hall.  They
are reprintings of the original journals.

It's possible that P-H and the company may think this is going to
the well too many times (more precisely, say "sure!  are you
willing to pay?")





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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	(envelope-from wkt)
From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199902110423.PAA27333@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Reprints of old BSTJ?
In-Reply-To: <199902110408.PAA09443@csadfa.cs.adfa.oz.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Feb 10, 1999 11: 8: 9 pm"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Thu, 11 Feb 1999 15:23:13 +1100 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> I got substantially the same letter from Peng.  I had already mentioned
> the possibility of another reprint of the BSTJ/AT&TTJ issues to the
> PR people, but haven't pursued the matter. 
> I do note that this already happened
> once:  there are two volumes entitled Unix System: Readings and
> Applications (v I and II), with ISBN 0-13-938532-0 and
> 0-13-939845-7) published in 1987 by Prentice-Hall.  They
> are reprintings of the original journals.
> 
> It's possible that P-H and the company may think this is going to
> the well too many times (more precisely, say "sure!  are you
> willing to pay?")

I guess, if P-H only has the publishing rights, and not the copyright,
that Lucent could place the old papers (in some format) on the Web.

Thanks again,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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	(envelope-from wkt)
From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <199908280353.NAA06215@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: dsw
In-Reply-To: <199908270723.RAA00254@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Aug 27, 1999  3:23:43 am"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Sat, 28 Aug 1999 13:53:36 +1000 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> You may have received the dsw mail more than once too,
> since I sent it to you (with some address) and to PUPS, which
> appeared to bounce, and then again just now, which partially did.
> There have been some network instabilities here, and one
> can't discount operator error.

It seems your mail system can't recognise wkt@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au
(my desktop box), but it can recognise wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au (a mail alias)
 
> I don't have a problem with copying the compilers, more
> or less as a mirror.   I wonder if anyone will try to revive them?

8-) If I just had some more time. After getting the 3rd Edition nsys
kernel working, I've realised that doing this is like reviving
dinosaur DNA: you need the correct environment for it to work. It's
fortunate that the 5th Edition is still in existence, AND there are
working PDP-11 emulators. If/when I get to those two compilers, I'll
start with V5 and a working emulator as the environment.
 
> I've been in conversation recently with Dan Bricklin, of VisiCalc fame. ...
> http://www.bricklin.com/history/vcpostingreactions.htm .

Thanks for the URL. I still have a VisiCalc disk image for an Apple ][,
and an Apple ][ emulator. In fact, up until two years ago, VisiCalc was
the only spreadsheet program I'd ever used.

Cheers,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Message-Id: <199908300426.OAA11894@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: dsw
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As a test, I'm sending this via henry.  There have been some
disturbances; maybe the storm is over.

It'll be interesting to see whether anyone gets one of the
primeval compilers working.  It might indeed be like
recreating T. Rex from preserved DNA.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I looked at the slides--look OK to me.  I was strongly tempted to
come to the event, but September is a bad month w.r.t. work things.

About the specific slide you sent--if you want to be certain
of correctness in all details, you might just say 1973 instead of 1972.
>From 1999's viewpoint, it's equally impressive, but  several things are better
documented historically for '73 than '72-- things were changing
fast.  The later things (not in from the start, but indeed in by 1973) were
OS written in C, pipes, approximately the current form of signals.

Incidentally, some features mentioned that were in from
absolutely the very start (the magic 30 years) were

	multiple concurrent and named users (passwords later)

	multiple processes (not protected, because the hardware
	  didn't have it) with swapping

	sort of hierarchical file system
	permissions
	hard links
	devices accessed as files

	open close read write seek operations on files

Things certainly added '71-'73-- C, pipes, passwords,
approximately modern form of signals.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Content-Length: 295
Lines: 12

There might be an AT&T vs Lucent issue in the permissions.
Probably more relevant is the form--the reprinting was
done photographically, and only some of the papers
existed in machine readable form.  They are also quite
scattered (e.g. I have not been able to locate some of
mine).

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: the s2 tape
Date: Mon, 30 Aug 1999 16:19:48 -0400
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is below (uuencoded)

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M____C%7*7                                                   
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M8V5M8F5R                                                    
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M(&-O=6YT"F)I;B]D=0                                          
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MYP-B:6XO;FT                                                 
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M$I##"OL"@Q5B:6XO<F]F9@                                      
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M<WES('=U<W(O>                                               
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M@0$#U O4"P037                                               
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/                    
 
end





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Subject: Re: Happy New Year + 1stEd binaries run again
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 2000 01:58:10 -0500
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 > 	Merry Christmas & Happy 2000 to you and your family. I hope you
 > didn't suffer too many Y2K problems. None to report here.

Likewise on all counts!  As a giggle I did fix a troff -ms bug (on Plan 9)
that is widely shared in many environments wherein the date when
converted to a string was January 1 19100. It all owes, I suppose,
to the C routine that returns year-1900 and lots of programs
catenate two digits to "19".

 > This e-mail contains some new observations, reports and requests on early
 > Unixes. I hope you don't mind my requests. It is summer break here, and I
 > have been working on my PDP-11 a.out emulator. By using your on-line 1st
 > Edition manuals, I can now run the 0405-magic a.out binaries on the `s2'

In some ways it's like summer break here (aside from the holidays)
because the temperature was 65F today.  Not the usual January.

I'm not sure what to do about the early-70s date issue.  It looks likely
that some of the files are mis-epoched, but I haven't worked out
the details.  As you know the epoch did change more than once.
The extraction program has an idea (based on whether it was a tap
or tp tape) of which to use, and the exact code that interprets the
bits is on tap tapes is now

long
cvtime(unsigned char *tp)
{
	unsigned long t = (tp[1]<<24)+(tp[0]<<16)+(tp[3]<<8)+(tp[2]<<0);
	t /= 60;
	t += 3*365*24*3600;
	return t;
}

which seems to reduce 60ths sec to sec, then normalize to 3 years
before that epoch.  It appears that there's no such routine for tp
tapes (so I guess that the "standard" epoch had been adopted by
then).

 > I'd be interested to know any details you have about the origins of the s2
 > tape, especially who are jack, peter, jay, bob, sun and lee in /etc/uids.

I don't know the origins, and in particular who jack etc. are, and why
they are the only personal names in the password file.  I can think
of some possibilities, but the tape snapshot was clearly not taken
of our main machine.  (Lee could be conceivably be Lee McMahon, whose usual
or maybe later login name was lem; peter could be Peter McIlroy,
Doug McIlroy's son; but the collection is an odd one).  I'm wondering
whether the tape might have been made on an offshoot or
cloned system.

I'll try to dredge up the s1 and s2 bits once I figure out the current
magical bindings for ftp.  I have never decrypted s1.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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	for <wkt@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>; Wed, 5 Jan 2000 14:19:19 +1100 (EST)
From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Subject: Re: Happy New Year + 1stEd binaries run again
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 2000 22:19:01 -0500
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 > Could you send me the program you wrote to decode s2-bits? I had a
 > quick look at s1: I don't recognise the format. I thought it might
 > be a dump of a filesystem, but there are full pathnames in the file,
 > which suggests otherwise.

I haven't done full "cryptanalysis" on s1, but I can't figure out
what it is.  But you're right that there is something there.

Attached below is  the "plugin" for tapfs (part of the plan 9 things that
mount things as file systems).  It's the only part that's tap-specific.

Just got your latest mail--as I said, I don't recognize the format of s1
either.  My headers for s2 are consistent with yours, I think, modulo
date understanding.  (And mapping of permissions etc into Plan 9).
For example: 

--r---wxrw- M 10745 79524 28 1912 Jan  3  1973 bin/form

The M 10745 79524 28 part is just Plan 9; there's a possible year
ambiguity; the day difference is probably US vs AU.

	---

#include <u.h>
#include <libc.h>
#include "tapefs.h"

/*
 * File system for old tap tapes.
 */

struct tap {
	unsigned char	name[32];
	unsigned char	mode[1];
	unsigned char	uid[1];
	unsigned char	size[2];
	unsigned char	tmod[4];
	unsigned char	taddress[2];
	unsigned char	unused[20];
	unsigned char	checksum[2];
} dir[192];

int	tapefile;
char	buffer[8192];
long	cvtime(unsigned char *);

void
populate(char *name)
{
	int i, isabs;
	struct tap *tpp;
	Fileinf f;

	replete = 1;
	tapefile = open(name, OREAD);
	if (tapefile<0)
		error("Can't open argument file");
	read(tapefile, dir, sizeof dir);
	for (i=0, tpp=&dir[8]; i<192; i++, tpp++) {
		unsigned char *sp = (unsigned char *)tpp;
		int j, cksum = 0;
		for (j=0; j<32; j++, sp+=2)
			cksum += sp[0] + (sp[1]<<8);
		cksum &= 0xFFFF;
		if (cksum!=0) {
			print("cksum failure\n");
			continue;
		}
		if (tpp->name[0]=='\0')
			continue;
		f.addr = (void *)(tpp->taddress[0] + (tpp->taddress[1]<<8));
		if (f.addr==0)
			continue;
		f.size = tpp->size[0] + (tpp->size[1]<<8);
		f.mdate = cvtime(tpp->tmod);
		f.mode = tpp->mode[0]&0777;
		isabs = tpp->name[0]=='/';
		f.name = (char *)tpp->name+isabs;
		poppath(f, 1);
	}
}

long
cvtime(unsigned char *tp)
{
	unsigned long t = (tp[1]<<24)+(tp[0]<<16)+(tp[3]<<8)+(tp[2]<<0);
	t /= 60;
	t += 3*365*24*3600;
	return t;
}

void
popdir(Ram *r)
{
	USED(r);
}

void
dotrunc(Ram *r)
{
	USED(r);
}

void
docreate(Ram *r)
{
	USED(r);
}

char *
doread(Ram *r, long off, long cnt)
{
	if (cnt>sizeof(buffer))
		print("count too big\n");
	seek(tapefile, 512*(int)r->data+off, 0);
	read(tapefile, buffer, cnt);
	return buffer;
}

void
dowrite(Ram *r, char *buf, long off, long cnt)
{
	USED(r); USED(buf); USED(off); USED(cnt);
}

int
dopermw(Ram *r)
{
	USED(r);
	return 0;
}





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Happy New Year + 1stEd binaries run again
Date: Tue, 4 Jan 2000 03:04:56 -0500
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Try doing anonymous ftp to plan9.bell-labs.com, looking in directory
incoming/dmr .   Files are s1-bits and s2-bits.

Let me know if it works.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <200001050258.NAA18696@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: More on s2-bits archive
In-Reply-To: <200001040805.TAA10549@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 4, 2000  3: 4:56 am"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Wed, 5 Jan 2000 13:58:25 +1100 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Let me know if it works.
> 	Dennis

Dennis, I've modified my emulator to seek properly on /dev files in 1st Ed.
The following list gives details of all the files in the s2-bits tap-format
archive. The first columns are a direct copy of a listing done with the
emulated 1st Edition tap(1) from the s2-bits tape.

The 2nd last column gives the file's modified timestamp (in decimal)
as recorded in the archive: I captured the smdate(2) argument as tap(1)
tried to extract the archive. This is in 1/60th second units. The epoch
is possibly 1971, but this is not certain.

The last column gives the timestamp (in hexadecimal) after it has been
converted to seconds since 1970, assuming an epoch of 1971 as above.

The list is sorted by the TAP DATE column.

MODE  UID SIZE  TAPA    DATE     NAME		TAP DATE    SECONDS
=============================================================================
-rwrw  0 16448  538 Jan  1 00:33 /core		121912 ->  0x1e13b6f
-rwrw 10    54  529 Jan  1 00:52 /usr/x		188944 ->  0x1e13fcd
-rwrw 10    84  474 Jan  1 00:58 /usr/jack/x.f	209544 ->  0x1e14124
-rwrw  0   312  490 Jan  1 00:58 /usr/jack/x.o	210381 ->  0x1e14132
xrwrw  0  7514  475 Jan  1 00:58 /usr/jack/a.out	210836 ->  0x1e14139
-r-r-  1  1664  533 Jan  1 01:31 /tmp/etma	328795 ->  0x1e148e7
-rwrw  1   670  530 Jan  1 01:33 /usr/ken/maki.s	336810 ->  0x1e1496d
-rwr-  0   142  532 Jan  1 01:33 /tmp/utmp	337991 ->  0x1e14981
-rwrw  0   512  259 Jan  1 01:33 /etc/std0	338378 ->  0x1e14987
xrwrw  0   698  229 Jan  1 01:35 /bin/maki	344095 ->  0x1e149e6
-rwrw  0    26  537 Jan  1 01:35 /tmp/ttmp	344821 ->  0x1e149f3
-rwrw  0 16448  260 Jan  1 01:36 /usr/sys/core	347684 ->  0x1e14a22
-rwr-  1  1928  298 Jan  1 01:36 /usr/sys/maki.s	348923 ->  0x1e14a37
xrwrw  0  2192  293 Jan  1 01:37 /usr/sys/a.out	349375 ->  0x1e14a3e
xrwr-  3  1912  135 Jan  4 17:05 /bin/form	19243860 ->  0x1e6185b
urwr-  0  3940  142 Jan  5 19:26 /bin/mail	24936840 ->  0x1e78afe
xrwr-  1  2662  241 Jan  6 18:01 /etc/glob	29812654 ->  0x1e8c86d
xrwr-  1   186  240 Jan  6 18:01 /etc/msh	29812724 ->  0x1e8c86e
urwr-  0   784   50 Jan 17 17:46 /bin/mv	86785042 ->  0x1f74591
xrwr-  3   134  114 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/cat	86808907 ->  0x1f7471f
xrwr-  3    82   25 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/chmod	86808926 ->  0x1f7471f
xrwr-  3   420   93 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/cmp	86808947 ->  0x1f7471f
xrwr-  3   160   48 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/cp	86808966 ->  0x1f74720
xrwr-  3   464   79 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/du	86809052 ->  0x1f74721
xrwr-  3   104   49 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/ln	86809162 ->  0x1f74723
xrwr-  3  2010   42 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/ls	86809182 ->  0x1f74723
xrwr-  3   154  126 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/mesg	86809205 ->  0x1f74724
xrwr-  3    70  121 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/rew	86809297 ->  0x1f74725
xrwr-  3    93   52 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/rm	86809316 ->  0x1f74725
xrwr-  3  1026   54 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/stat	86809356 ->  0x1f74726
xrwr-  3    80  125 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/tty	86809419 ->  0x1f74727
xrwr-  3   524   57 Jan 17 17:53 /bin/write	86809532 ->  0x1f74729
xrwr-  3   560   77 Jan 17 17:54 /bin/who	86813788 ->  0x1f74770
xrwr-  3   644  139 Jan 17 17:54 /bin/wc	86813793 ->  0x1f74770
xrwr-  3   750  164 Jan 17 17:54 /bin/skip	86813802 ->  0x1f74770
xrwr-  3  1166  115 Jan 17 17:54 /bin/pr	86813803 ->  0x1f74770
xrwr-  3   300  141 Jan 17 17:54 /bin/od	86813807 ->  0x1f74770
xrwr-  3  1844  159 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/if	86819396 ->  0x1f747cd
xrwr-  3  1154  156 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/goto	86819398 ->  0x1f747cd
xrwr-  3   276  163 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/exit	86819403 ->  0x1f747ce
xrwr-  3  1054  153 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/echo	86819406 ->  0x1f747ce
xrwr-  3   244   60 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/dsw	86819407 ->  0x1f747ce
xrwr-  3  5922   80 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/bas	86819408 ->  0x1f747ce
xrwr-  3    16  152 Jan 17 17:56 /bin/:		86819410 ->  0x1f747ce
xrwr-  1   954   32 Jan 19 17:20 /bin/sh	97059255 ->  0x1f9e276
xrwr-  3  2310  103 Jan 26 17:20 /bin/ar	133346922 ->  0x2031cf0
xrwr-  3  1048  166 Jan 31 18:14 /bin/stty	159458885 ->  0x209c0f0
xrwrw  6  2860  169 Mar  7 12:23 /bin/cal	339637168 ->  0x237934b
-rwr-  3  2082  233 Mar 28 16:42 /etc/suftab	449432781 ->  0x2537f72
urwr-  0  1290   28 Mar 29 15:19 /bin/login	454317684 ->  0x254bd79
xrwr-  3  4066   95 Mar 29 16:42 /bin/db	454616955 ->  0x254d0f5
xrwrw  3    76   94 Apr  6 19:42 /bin/chball	496735250 ->  0x25f8708
xrwrw  3   446  232 Apr  7 16:40 /etc/getty	501264829 ->  0x260aded
xrwr-  3  6846  176 Apr 14 20:50 /bin/dc	538454712 ->  0x26a2325
urwr-  0   794   26 Apr 20 23:45 /bin/date	570186721 ->  0x2723508
urwr-  0   746  190 May  3 22:54 /bin/su	637395674 ->  0x2834c9d
xrwr-  3  3998  127 May 10 15:23 /bin/ed	672059949 ->  0x28c1d67
xrwr-  3   330  213 May 27 00:21 /bin/find	756940137 ->  0x2a1b374
xrwr-  3   480   59 May 27 00:21 /bin/strip	756940428 ->  0x2a1b379
urwr-  1   872  211 May 27 00:26 /bin/ds	756957948 ->  0x2a1b49d
xrwr- 10  2730  192 May 27 23:37 /bin/fc	761966733 ->  0x2a2fab5
xrwrw  3 17092  346 Jun  6 21:26 /usr/lib/c1	813333853 ->  0x2b00aec
-rwrw  0  3498  339 Jun  9 17:10 /usr/lib/bilib.a	827964344 ->  0x2b3c36d
-rwrw  0  6626  326 Jun 20 10:47 /usr/lib/libb.a	883611316 ->  0x2c1ea47
xrwr-  3  7582  214 Jun 30 17:45 /bin/as	936955268 ->  0x2cf7b31
xrwrw  3  5778  247 Jun 30 17:47 /etc/as2	936962166 ->  0x2cf7ba4
xrwr-  3   238  118 Jun 30 18:37 /bin/un	937143109 ->  0x2cf876b
-rwrw  0 12158  302 Jun 30 18:40 /usr/lib/liba.a	937154143 ->  0x2cf8823
xrwr-  3  2942  108 Jun 30 19:26 /bin/ld	937319472 ->  0x2cf92e7
xrwr-  3   518   75 Jun 30 20:09 /bin/nm	937472871 ->  0x2cf9ce3
xrwr-  3  1446  208 Jun 30 20:15 /bin/size	937496145 ->  0x2cf9e67
-rwrw 28   304  448 Jun 30 20:31 /usr/lib/fr0.o	937553564 ->  0x2cfa224
-rwrw 28 12222  449 Jun 30 20:37 /usr/lib/filib.a	937573356 ->  0x2cfa36e
-rwrw 28  9158  419 Jun 30 20:46 /usr/lib/libf.a	937606048 ->  0x2cfa58f
-rwrw  0   108  473 Jun 30 21:11 /usr/lib/crt0.o	937696858 ->  0x2cfab78
-rwrw  0  5242  437 Jun 30 21:20 /usr/lib/libc.a	937728015 ->  0x2cfad80
xrwrw  3 19948  380 Jun 30 21:21 /usr/lib/c0	937734428 ->  0x2cfadeb
xrwrw  3  4672  198 Jun 30 21:53 /bin/cc	937848855 ->  0x2cfb55e
xrwr- 28  3462  491 Jul  1 16:35 /usr/fort/fc1	941888104 ->  0x2d0bc57
xrwr- 28  3238  498 Jul  1 16:35 /usr/fort/fc2	941888184 ->  0x2d0bc58
xrwr- 28  6840  505 Jul  1 16:35 /usr/fort/fc3	941888472 ->  0x2d0bc5d
xrwr- 28  4918  519 Jul  1 16:35 /usr/fort/fc4	941888613 ->  0x2d0bc5f
xrwrw  3   214  175 Jul 15 01:21 /bin/sum	1011175062 ->  0x2e25b35
xrwr-  4  7154   61 Jul 21 12:42 /bin/roff	1044729738 ->  0x2eae3c2
urwr-  0   282   53 Sep 28 21:37 /bin/rmdir	1404349922 ->  0x3465888
urwr-  0   232   31 Nov  6 21:42 /bin/mkdir	1606544287 ->  0x379c43a
urwr-  1   192   92 Nov 22 19:35 /bin/df	1689030995 ->  0x38ebe74
urwr-  1  1084  122 Nov 22 19:35 /bin/check	1689030997 ->  0x38ebe74
xrwr-  3   718   46 Nov 22 22:51 /bin/chown	1689737545 ->  0x38eec74
xrwr-  3   604  150 Nov 22 22:51 /bin/sort	1689737557 ->  0x38eec74
urwr-  1   790  119 Nov 26 14:24 /bin/tm	1708647263 ->  0x393bb8e
urwr-  0  3678   34 Dec 31 04:08 /bin/tap	1887871165 ->  0x3c14fc7

-rw--  1   221  239 Feb  6 14:35 /etc/passwd	2081934621 ->  0x3f2aa1e
-rwr-  1    70  238 Feb  6 14:38 /etc/uids	2081948231 ->  0x3f2ab01
xrwr-  1   424  231 Feb  6 14:50 /etc/init	2081988977 ->  0x3f2ada8

Note that the tap timestamp of 2081988977 for /etc/init is approximately
13 months. Therefore, the February for the last 3 files is the one in
the year after all the other archive files.

Note also that the C compiler passes, and the library, are dated in June
of the epoch year. Given that you have said that ``1972-73 were the truly
formative years in the development of the C language'', it's therefore
unlikely that the epoch for the s2 tape is 1971: it must be 1972.

I've used the emulated 1st Ed tap(1) to extract all the files from the
archive, and have created a gzipped tar archive of the files. You can
retrieve this via anonymous ftp to minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au in
incoming/s2-bits.tar.gz. I used 1972 as the epoch when doing this.

Cheers,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
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Message-Id: <200001060603.RAA27892@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Some Success with s1-bits archive
Date: Thu, 6 Jan 2000 01:03:10 -0500
To: wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au
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You've had more success than I in the archeology of s1.

 > What was the process of changing epochs when timestamps were in clicks,
 > both in the rebuilding of the binaries, and in the system itself?

I think epoch changes (in the 60th-sec era)  were done by writing a program that
looked at all the inodes on the disk and in some way adjusted
them back (subtract a year).  I don't remember whether this was clamped at the earliest
representable date or otherwise how unrepresentable dates were
dealt with.  There was enough churn that probably few things on the disk
could not be adjusted.   I seem to remember that at least some DECtapes
were similarly adjusted.  With just an epoch change, probably most
programs didn't need to be recompiled just for that (only those
that displayed dates).  But of course things tended to be recompiled
frequently for other reasons.

I'm a little confused about this--

 > Now to s2-bits. It looks like most files have contiguous blocks. I did
 > a visual inspection of the file, and broke it into fragments. The list of
 > fragments found are described below. A copy of the fragments can be obtained
 > by anonymous ftp to minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au in the file
 > incoming/s2-fragments.tar.gz

This means s1-bits, right?  I collected your fragments archive in any case.
I'm guessing that s1 is likely to be part of a disk dump onto tape.
Correlation of the contents (the fragments you found are
mostly recognizable) with manuals probably will yield
approximate dates.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > Thanks for that. I'm still trying to think why the s2-bits archive has
 > both 0405- and 0407-magic a.out files. From your comments, it looks
 > unlikely that a significant number of files from two epochs could be
 > in a filesystem at the same time. Alternatively, perhaps the kernel
 > supported both types of a.out files. Can you remember if the kernel
 > ever had simultaneous support for both (some sort of transition period)?

Now that I'm at work and have looked at the manuals, I think
I've solved many of the questions.

1st edition a.out magic was 405; 2nd (Nov 1971) was 407.  This was
in preparation for first the KS11 memory management and then
the 11/45.  The two objects files were compatible; the difference
was the  bigger header with more space (for bss size and entry
point).

In the 3rd edition (March 1972) the 11/45 or at least the
KS-11was standard but the
a.out header was still 407.   Stack started at 57000; the
I/O page had to be mapped in to get the EAE device.
 I would suspect that programs were still loaded at virtual 40000.

In the 4th edition (Nov 1973) the C system had been
installed and the two possible a.out headers were
407 and 410.  The 410 header indicated a write-protected
text segment that could be shared. (Later, 411 would be
separate I and D).  Stack started at 177776.

 > I don't suppose you recorded the handwritten labels from the original
 > DECtapes? I always try to copy them over as well; they can help where
 > the tape contents are uncertain.

I believe they just said S1 and S2 (no dates).

 > Ken's modified C compiler (as noted in his Turing award speech) came up
 > on the mailing list yesterday. I'm sure I remember reading that he actually
 > did release this in the labs. Do you know of any on-line references?

I've mentioned it in netnews.  It was in a sense released, but
"implanted" is a better word.  It was not on a distribution.
Ken sent it to the Raritan River PWB group, saying "here
is a new compiler.  I think you have to install the binaries;
your current compiler might not handle compiling the source."
They ran it for a few months; at some point I think they
looked at the symbol table for some reason and saw
some things they didn't understand so they recompiled
it, using an old compiler.  Or conceivably they ran
cpp on the compiler.  and looked at the output (it was actually
cpp that was bugged).  However, I don't think they ever worked out
what had happened exactly and the cpp output would
have been pretty clear, though not the magic involved.

One thing I've always wondered about was whether
they ever redistributed it.  Mashey doubts this,
but isn't absolutely positive.  Certainly it didn't
spread far.  It is a fragile virus.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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OK, here is a better table, with some new facts:

First edition: November 1971
	a.out: 405
	epoch: Jan 1 1971 (60ths)
	dump format: tap

Second edition: June 1972
	a.out: 407 (405 OK)
	epoch: Jan 1, 1971 (60ths)
	dump format: tap

Third edition: February 1973
	a.out: 407
	epoch: Jan 1, 1972 (60ths)
	dump format: tap

Fourth edition: November 1973 (first C system)
	a.out: 407, 410
	epoch: Jan 1, 1970 (seconds)
	dump format: tp





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Some Success with s1-bits archive
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I will recheck the dates.  I looked at them earlier today
but did some cut'n'paste in the mail and might have
mistyped also.  (Esp. in the attribution of 3rd to '72 sted 73; but
tomorrow instead jotting down notes from the shelved manuals
I will get manuals all together and do it more systematically).

One problem is that I suspect that the tap-format tapes
of which I have copies probably have more than one
epoch, and the program has just one epoch built in.

Feel free to post the C compiler story.  (BTW, I just looked
at the minnie mailing list archives and have seen comments
through Foust on 7 Jan Oz time).  It's still correct but I garbled
a bit.  Slightly edited version:

---
Ken's modified C compiler (the neat thing in his Turing award speech)
came up on the mailing list.  I've talked about the story in netnews,
but either Deja no longer goes back far enough or I didn't think
of the right search keys.

The bugged compiler was in a sense released, but probably
"implanted" is a better word.  It was not on a distribution.
Ken sent it to the Raritan River PWB group at the Labs, saying "here
is a new compiler.  I think you have to install the binaries;
your current compiler might not handle compiling the source."
They ran it for a few months; at some point I think they
looked at the symbol table for some reason and saw
some things they didn't understand so they recompiled
it, using an old compiler.  Or conceivably they ran
cpp on the main compiler,  and looked at the output--it was actually
cpp that was bugged.  However, I don't think they ever worked out
what had happened exactly, just felt that something was funny.
>From our point of view, the hole just disappeared at some
point.

One thing I've always wondered about was whether
PWB ever redistributed it unknowingly.  Mashey doubts this,
but isn't utterly positive.  Certainly it didn't spread far--
it is a fragile virus.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <200001062256.JAA38660@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Some Success with s1-bits archive
In-Reply-To: <200001062003.HAA01880@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 6, 2000  3: 3:34 pm"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Fri, 7 Jan 2000 09:56:05 +1100 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Now that I'm at work and have looked at the manuals, I think I've
> solved many of the questions.
> 
> 1st edition a.out magic was 405; 2nd (Nov 1971) was 407.  This was
> in preparation for first the KS11 memory management and then the
> 11/45.  The two objects files were compatible; the difference was
> the  bigger header with more space (for bss size and entry point).
> 
> In the 3rd edition (March 1972) the 11/45 or at least the KS-11 was
> standard but the a.out header was still 407.   Stack started at
> 57000; the I/O page had to be mapped in to get the EAE device.
> I would suspect that programs were still loaded at virtual 40000.
> 
> In the 4th edition (Nov 1973) the C system had been installed and
> the two possible a.out headers were 407 and 410.  The 410 header
> indicated a write-protected text segment that could be shared.
> (Later, 411 would be separate I and D).  Stack started at 177776.

I don't want to appear facetious, but according to Peter Salus' book
``A Quarter Century of UNIX'', the dates were:

1st Edition     November 3, 1971        [QCU]   QCU= A Quarter Century of UNIX
2nd Edition     June 12, 1972           [QCU]        Peter Salus
3rd Edition     February, 1973          [QCU]        Addison-Wesley
4th Edition     November, 1973          [QCU]        ISBN 0-201-54777-5

Assume 1972 was the epoch for the s2-bits tape, and that the correct
timestamps for the files range from Jan 1, 1972 to Feb 6, 1973. This
puts some files after the release of 1st Edition, some leading up to
and after 2nd Edition [KS11 and prep for 11/45 as noted above]. The
C compiler binaries have dates in June, 1972, which seems consistent
with the notion that Ken tried to rewrite the kernel in summer '72 but
gave up, and that a working C kernel (aka `nsys') was in existence
in late Jan, 1973. 3rd Edition came out in Feb, 1973, still as an assembly
kernel, with the migration to a C kernel done by 4th Edition in Nov, 1973.

That's my gut feeling as to why I think 1972 was the epoch for s2-bits.
1971 is too early: there wasn't a C compiler in June 1971. 1973 would be
too late: you wouldn't have that many 0405-magic a.outs lying around.

However, what you've told me above about the a.out environment for 2nd
and 3rd Editions will be invaluable when I come to emulating them :-)


>  > I don't suppose you recorded the handwritten labels from the original
>  > DECtapes?
> I believe they just said S1 and S2 (no dates).

Damn. Oh well.

>  > Ken's modified C compiler (as noted in his Turing award speech) came up
> I've mentioned it in netnews.  It was in a sense released, but
> "implanted" is a better word.  It was not on a distribution.
> Ken sent it to the Raritan River PWB group, saying "here
> is a new compiler.  I think you have to install the binaries;
> your current compiler might not handle compiling the source."
> They ran it for a few months; at some point I think they
> looked at the symbol table for some reason and saw
> some things they didn't understand so they recompiled
> it, using an old compiler.  Or conceivably they ran
> cpp on the compiler.  and looked at the output (it was actually
> cpp that was bugged).  However, I don't think they ever worked out
> what had happened exactly and the cpp output would
> have been pretty clear, though not the magic involved.
> 
> One thing I've always wondered about was whether
> they ever redistributed it.  Mashey doubts this,
> but isn't absolutely positive.  Certainly it didn't
> spread far.  It is a fragile virus.
> 	Dennis

Many thanks for that! May I pass it on to the list?

Sometimes I wonder what you think of my interest in these old systems.
I'm sure you have enough work to do with present system to worry about
the code you guys wrote nearly 30 years ago.

Thanks again!

	Warren





From wkt@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au, osdude@xoommail.com  Fri Jan  7 02:13:47 2000
From: wkt@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au, osdude@xoommail.com (PUPS Archive Request Form)
Date: Fri, 7 Jan 2000 12:13:47 +1100 (EST)
Subject: Another PUPS Archive Request
Message-ID: <200001070113.MAA52653@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au>

Here is a request of a copy of the PUPS Archive:

Thomas Rates
	Email: osdude@xoommail.com
	Claims to be covered by SCO license AU-185
	Wants a copy of PUPS Archive on the following media:
	  CD-ROM
	Postal address is:
	  1024 Water Street Apartment 2
	  Brownsville, Pennsylvania 15417







From wkt@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au, shigio@tamacom.com  Fri Jan  7 08:48:57 2000
From: wkt@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au, shigio@tamacom.com (PUPS Archive Request Form)
Date: Fri, 7 Jan 2000 18:48:57 +1100 (EST)
Subject: Another PUPS Archive Request
Message-ID: <200001070748.SAA54224@minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au>

Here is a request of a copy of the PUPS Archive:

Shigio Yamaguchi
	Email: shigio@tamacom.com
	Claims to be covered by SCO license AU-195
	Wants a copy of PUPS Archive on the following media:
	  CD-ROM
	Postal address is:
	  305 Maison Kokubo
	  1-15-11 Nagayama
	  Tama-shi, Tokyo, 206-0025 Japan







From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Some Success with s1-bits archive
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 > I've made a start on running the 2nd Ed binaries on s2-bits by assuming that
 > the system API was the same as 1st Edition. At present, size(1) gives the
 > correct printf error messages on non-existant file or wrong head in file.
 > However, size(1), nm(1) and /usr/lib/c0 all crash when given correct arguments.

 > Of course it's difficult to debug. There could be errors in:

 > 	- the emulated API (2nd Ed API != 1st Ed API)
 > 	- the environment provided to the emulated program
 > 	- simulation of the instructions (PDP-11/20 different to later versions)

 > or a combination of all three :-)

Well, there is the 405-407 issue, although if a program
is able to write an error message it at least got into
execution.

I think that all 11/20 instructions work on later processors.
However: does the simulator handle the 11/20 EAE device?
It would be used on any */% operation or shifts of more than
one place.  Look for unhandled accesses to locations
177300 and just above.






From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 2000 00:05:28 -0500
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Excellent!

	Dennis


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Subject: Recompilation of last1120c
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Dennis,
	Just a quick note. Using s2-bits C compiler, I have recompiled
both c0 and c1 from last1120c. Then by moving the new c0 and c1 into
/usr/lib, I have recompiled c0 and c1 with themselves.

Currently at home, expecting a phone call, so must disconnect
the modem. More details later.

	Warren
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I fiddled the primevalC page; let me know if it works and if
other information would be useful.

	Dennis


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Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
In-Reply-To: <200001100505.QAA24578@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 10, 2000  0: 5:28 am"
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Cc: wkt@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Warren wrote:
> 	Just a quick note. Using s2-bits C compiler, I have recompiled
> both c0 and c1 from last1120c. Then by moving the new c0 and c1 into
> /usr/lib, I have recompiled c0 and c1 with themselves.
>
> Excellent!
> 	Dennis

The latest emulator is at ftp://minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au/pub/PDP-11/Sims/Apout/
and I've also included there the last1120c course and the binaries required
to recompile it. Could you change your primeval.html page to point here?

I think it will be nigh impossible to recompile prestruct-c, because of
all the missing table files in assembly. I've tried to substitute the
existing last1120c files for those missing in prestruct-c, but I get
serious parse error when I run the resulting c0 binary.

I've only got the last1120c and prestruct-c source directly from your web
page: these files have lost their timestamps. Could you send me the original
tap/tp archives, just for historical accuracy?

Well, I've run out of things to do for a bit, until copies of the 2nd Ed
manuals arrive from Norman. My emulator currently supports binaries from
V1, V2, V5, V6, V7, 2.9BSD and 2.11BSD. I won't bother to emulate V3/V4
because there are no binaries to run :-)

Cheers,
	Warren
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From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
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Oh! I forgot to mention that the last* and pres* bits
are in the ftp incoming directory, same place as
s1 and s2 were (what is it, plan9.bell-labs.com/incoming/dmr ?)

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
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Reload or something....

p9C; ls -tl
--rw-rw-r-- M 815 dmr web 295936 Jan 10 00:34 last1120c-bits
--rw-rw-r-- M 815 dmr web 295936 Jan 10 00:34 prestructc-bits
--rw-r--r-- M 815 dmr web 295936 Jan  4 02:54 s2-bits
--rw-r--r-- M 815 dmr web 295936 Jan  4 02:54 s1-bits


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au>
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Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
In-Reply-To: <200001100707.SAA25487@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 10, 2000  2: 6:56 am"
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Oh! I forgot to mention that the last* and pres* bits
> are in the ftp incoming directory, same place as
> s1 and s2 were (what is it, plan9.bell-labs.com/incoming/dmr ?)
> 	D.

At present:

ftp> dir
200 Data port is tcp!131.236.2.210!56575
150 Opened data connection (tcp!131.236.2.210!56575)
total 1156
-rw-r--r--   1 none     none      295936 Jan  4 01:17 s1-bits
-rw-r--r--   1 none     none      295936 Jan  4 01:17 s2-bits
226 Transfer complete

So perhaps later, there's no rush.

Cheers,
	Warren
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From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Early UNIX Dates: revised timeline
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 2000 16:20:08 -0500
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 > By now I must have coerced nearly all the pertinent machine-readable
 > 0s and 1s out of you. You don't have any relevant tap/tp archives left,
 > by any chance? I'd be happy to keep them confidential.

Do you still have the list of tapes?  I think I sent it once.

Mahoney: when I talked to him, he was amenable to publishing
the redacted interview.  You can see it at
 http://www.princeton.edu/~mike/expotape.htm ,
but don't copy it.  The short papers by the students
seem to be gone (I would assume that copyright
problems with these could never be solved, anyway.)

The PR guy has just sent a second go-around on his
effort.  The first was pretty bad, but I haven't looked
at the second yet.  (His mail is next to yours).

 > 	Unknown: Peter Neumann coins the term `Unics', which is
 > 		subsequently changed to `Unix'
 > 		  [QCU pg 9]

I think the Neumann connection was an invention of my
own fevered brain.  I wasn't sure who created the name
and I assumed Peter because of his propensity for
puns.  He has since denied involvement and Brian
has claimed it, so I think things are as certain as
they can be at this point.

 > 	Mid-year: The PDP-11/20 is purchased, with no disk drives
 > 		[QCU pg 35],
It was ordered with a disk, but only the CPU was ready in the
summer.

 >	3 months later: The disks arrive
	disk, singular.

BTW, exchange this and the recoding pg.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <200001100217.NAA63936@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Recompilation of last1120c
In-Reply-To: <200001080903.UAA13277@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 8, 2000  4: 3:23 am"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 2000 13:17:09 +1100 (EST)
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Dennis,
	Just a quick note. Using s2-bits C compiler, I have recompiled
both c0 and c1 from last1120c. Then by moving the new c0 and c1 into
/usr/lib, I have recompiled c0 and c1 with themselves.

Currently at home, expecting a phone call, so must disconnect
the modem. More details later.

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt>
Message-Id: <200001100526.QAA64805@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Recompilation of last1120c
In-Reply-To: <200001100505.QAA24578@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 10, 2000  0: 5:28 am"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Mon, 10 Jan 2000 16:26:02 +1100 (EST)
Cc: wkt (Warren Toomey)
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Warren wrote:
> 	Just a quick note. Using s2-bits C compiler, I have recompiled
> both c0 and c1 from last1120c. Then by moving the new c0 and c1 into
> /usr/lib, I have recompiled c0 and c1 with themselves.
>
> Excellent!
> 	Dennis

The latest emulator is at ftp://minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au/pub/PDP-11/Sims/Apout/
and I've also included there the last1120c course and the binaries required
to recompile it. Could you change your primeval.html page to point here?

I think it will be nigh impossible to recompile prestruct-c, because of
all the missing table files in assembly. I've tried to substitute the
existing last1120c files for those missing in prestruct-c, but I get
serious parse error when I run the resulting c0 binary.

I've only got the last1120c and prestruct-c source directly from your web
page: these files have lost their timestamps. Could you send me the original
tap/tp archives, just for historical accuracy?

Well, I've run out of things to do for a bit, until copies of the 2nd Ed
manuals arrive from Norman. My emulator currently supports binaries from
V1, V2, V5, V6, V7, 2.9BSD and 2.11BSD. I won't bother to emulate V3/V4
because there are no binaries to run :-)

Cheers,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Early UNIX Dates: revised timeline
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Yes, people have already drunk from Mahoney's well.

BTW, I looked at the preserve.html page--It's still
somewhat unformed for a journal article, I think.
It's not a history of the travails of Unix, but neither
is it an account of the travails of collecting and maintaining
old software (though it includes elements of both).

Somehow it lacks focus.

On the reconstruction of prestruct-C -- I suspected
that the various tables would be sufficiently similar
that fraternal grafts would be possible.  Congrats for doing
the work.

	Dennis


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au>
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Subject: Re: Early UNIX Dates: revised timeline
In-Reply-To: <200001102120.IAA29553@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 10, 2000  4:20: 8 pm"
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Mahoney: when I talked to him, he was amenable to publishing
> the redacted interview.  You can see it at
>  http://www.princeton.edu/~mike/expotape.htm ,

Seems much of this was used by Peter Salus in his book `A Quarter
Century of UNIX'.

Cheers,
	Warren
--upas-plcvpjquzvrogfkfnhipgmzpqj--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Nsys kernel: a possible solution
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I'm going to have to digest the suggestions.  You're right
that the nominal dates in nsys are implausible by
more than 6 months.  Also that the modes are peculiar.

Do you have the structures that describe the tap formats you tried?
I will check them against the 2nd and 3rd edition documented
formats (which I might have mistranscribed, even leaving
aside possible mid-course changes).





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Nsys kernel: can I get the original tape image?
Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2000 16:25:55 -0500
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They're now in incoming.  BTW I'm about to delete the other
things.

	Dennis


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Subject: Nsys kernel: can I get the original tape image?
In-Reply-To: <200001110641.RAA05601@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jan 11, 2000  1:41:25 am"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 2000 08:23:46 +1100 (EST)
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Hi Dennis,
	Could I ask for a copy of the original tape image of the nsys kernel?
I've been thinking over that list of early UNIX dates, and the placement of
the nsys kernel seems a bit early. Here's my reasoning.

 From the list of early dates:

June '72: 2nd Edition manuals released.
June-July '72: The last1120c compiler and associated binaries from s2-bits.
December '72: The prestruct-c compiler.

By the prestruct-c compiler, the kernel had some form of memory management.
However, the compiler didn't support structures, nor the char * syntax.

February '73: 3rd Edition manuals released. According to Norman Wilson's
	web page on file system formats, ``The file system format has not
	changed, but times are now sixtieths of a second since 00:00
	1 January 1972''.
	[ http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~norman/old-unix/old-fs.html ]

September '73: The C version of the kernel is adopted.
November '73: The 4th Edition manuals were published. According to Norman,
	``The file system structure has changed quite a bit, probably at
	the same time the operating system was rewritten in C. The new
	format is the almost that of the more familiar Sixth Edition system.''

Looking at the source code to cp.c on the s1-bits tape, we see:

char *p1, *p2, *bp;
	. . .
        fstat(fold,buf);		/* Get details of source file */
        mode = buf[2] & 037;		/* Extract original file permissions */
        if((fnew = creat(argv[2],mode)) < 0){
                stat(argv[2], buf);
                if((buf[3] & 0100) != 0){	/* If new file's inode exists */

This version of cp(1) extracts the `xrwrw' file permissions, so it is
using the filesystem from 1st-3rd Edition. However, it uses `char *' syntax.
This dates the file after prestruct-c but before 4th Edition.

Moving on to the `nsys' kernel, most of the files are dated around
January 22-23, 1973. This source uses C structures and the `char *' syntax.
It also has a 4th Edition filesystem layout, and not a 3rd Edition layout.

To me, the date of late January 1973 for `nsys' is too early. Only a month
earler, the prestruct-c compiler didn't support structures nor `char *',
and two months later the 3rd Edition assembly kernel was still using the
original filesystem.

I'd probably place the `nsys' kernel between Feb and Sept 1973. This would
give enough time for the C compiler to gain structs and `char *', and for
the switch over to the new filesystem format.

Cheers again,
	Warren
--upas-rysbmtgmrpbudlvhxtftyokwkn--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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It turns out that the source ?roff for the 3rd and 4th
edition manuals exists online here.  These are
versions from bowell, which Norman will remember,
and are all owned (according to the bowell passwd
file) by andrew (Hume).  The Plan 9 file date marks--
inherited, probably faithfully, from bowell, and  most probably
faithfully from whatever tape Andrew loaded, are
in the range around Feb 1973 for the 3rd edition,
and Nov 1973 for the 4th.
The dates inside the files themselves are consistent with this.

This was clearly a feverish period.  The manual pages are
only a few months apart, but besides all the system changes,
the manual was redone from nroff to troff, which appeared
in the 4th and not the 3rd.  Ah, the energy of youth.





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Subject: Re: Nsys kernel: a possible solution
Date: Thu, 13 Jan 2000 16:20:58 -0500
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 > Hypothesis: at the time when the nsys-bits tape was written, tp(1) did
 > not yet exist, but at the same time you wanted to capture the current
 > system details. So, you modified tap(1)'s format to have the bottom
 > 8 bits of the new 16-bit filemode, and also stored the 32-bit tap(1) time

I think you've convinced me.  I've installed a -n flag for my tapfs.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I fancy that this
	nsys
        	If the decoding of the date on the tape is correct (Aug 1973),
        	this is the source for the earliest C version of Unix
        	likely to be recovered.  `nsys' meant the C version
        	rather than the assembly version, and Aug 73 is plausible for
        	a running instance of this system.
most likely refers to a date written on the paper label .
Because I don't have the tape at hand, I can't verify this.

I put tar versions of v3 and v4 in incoming.  Notes:
Total size about 1.2MB.  v4 especially depends on
a macro package I can't locate--evidently a predecessor
of -man .   (local versions of -man announce 
"wrong version of man entry macros (use -man6 if available)".
v3 especially is full of explicitly underlined things with
backspaces and _, and the _ tend to overwrite the letters
on the display.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Genealogy of Mini UNIX?
Date: Mon, 24 Jan 2000 22:54:11 -0500
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Point me at (or describe) what documentation you've got
and I will try to remember more details.  Names
on it like Heinz Lycklama and Doug Bayer
would be interesting.

	Dennis


	


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au>
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Subject: Genealogy of Mini UNIX?
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Hi Dennis, sorry to disturb you again. Can you remember the genealogy of
Mini UNIX? From the documentation here, it says:

	The MINI-UNIX system running is configured to run on an 11/10 with
	the given disk and the console teletype (KL) and using the EIS
	(extended instruction set) software emulation package. MINI-UNIX
	uses 12K words of memory for the system and 16K words for user
        programs.

	There are a number of differences between the capabilities of
	MINI-UNIX and standard UNIX of which the user should be aware.
	The concept of ``groups'' is not supported in MINI-UNIX; no
	profiling is done in MINI-UNIX; it is not possible to interactively
	debug another running process in MINI-UNIX. User programs are
        limited to 16K words in size and the sharing of text is not possible.
	Pipes are not implemented in the system; rather they are implemented
	as ``pseudo-pipes'' in the Shell command.

You know, this sounds just like 2nd Edition UNIX, i.e before you got the
11/45 and before pipes were added to the kernel.

I was wondering if Mini UNIX descends from 2nd Edition UNIX with the
addition of application-level things from 3e, 4e, 5e and 6e, or if
someone took 5e or 6e and `undid' all the things like memory management,
pipes and groups.

I'm just off for a few weeks vacation, but hope to be able to read my
e-mail periodically.

Thanks again!
	Warren
--upas-isqsixswbsdfdeepfcaimautzx--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Genealogy of Mini UNIX?
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I can cope with the attachment, and looked at the beginning
of the memo files.

Heinz L and others did indeed spend time adapting Unix
over 5-6-7 edition to keep running on smaller machines,
and did I think release versions of this.   It wasn't captured
as of 2nd edition; instead (as the memo date indicates)
the 6th was out, and the 7th was being worked on.
They picked out some newer things not to adopt and
found things to delete without too much injury.   We
were getting bigger machines, they wanted to keep
the essentials going on very small ones (especially
without MMU).  They were thinking lab equipment.
Memo2 is explicit that 6th edition was a model for
what they tried to do.

	D.






From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: copies of old AT&T licenses (fwd)
Date: Tue, 22 Feb 2000 22:04:07 -0500
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Norman Wilson had passed this on a day or so ago, and I
suggested you, as someone who might have been
sent copies in recent years!

I don't have these myself, and locally we didn't have
to do  the paperwork.  I'll see what I can dig up.
Maybe the best idea might be the North Carolina
licensing organization.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: copies of old AT&T licenses (fwd)
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I'm now sending mail to the Software Solutions Group
guy.  The other thought that came to mind might
be whoever in SCO handles the antique-system licenses.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: copies of old AT&T licenses (fwd)
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This today from Chuck Greene in NC:

 > Dennis,

 > All of the old UNIX records are now with Santa Cruz Operation.
 > I have contacted someone there and they are going to see what they can come
 > up with.
 > I will let you know if they can find the old agreements.

 > Chuck

At least this says that searching at SCO means "getting warm".
I'll transmit whatever I get from Chuck.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Help Reviewing History chat
Date: Thu, 2 Mar 2000 00:45:18 -0500
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Before spending too much time tweaking, it might be worth
testing it with Bergin to see if it is anything like what he wants
(or can be induced to take).   It's not far from the truth (though
tweaking is warranted).   Here are some amplifications--they
do make it longer, though.

I'll pass for now on coauthorship unless I spend a lot of time
on it.

	Dennis

 > Many universities received UNIX from the Labs, and began to make modifications.
 > In the late 1970s, the most widely known was AUSAM was developed at the
 > University of New South Wales and based on 6th Edition UNIX. Concurrently,
 > Bill Joy at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) created a new
 > text editor, {\it ex}, and a Pascal compiler for the system, and began to
 > distribute the first Berkeley Software Distribution (1BSD). A second
 > distribution, 2BSD, saw the addition of the shell and editor {\it csh} and
 > {\it vi}.

Actually Ken T did the first version of the UCB Pascal compiler while
on sabbatical at Berkeley, though the production version was
worked on by others later.  I don't know whether Joy was much
involved with this (he could have been).

 > The late 1970s saw the first ports of UNIX to platforms other than the PDP-11.
 > AT\&T ported 7th Edition UNIX to the new Vax platform in 1979. 32V, with
 > no virtual memory support, was then modified at Berkeley to have VM and was
 > released as 3BSD. 32V was also the basis for the commercial products
 > System III and System V from USL.

Just to up the Aussies, don't forget the Wollongong port, done about
the same time as our Interdata work.  The actual sequence:
Almost exactly contemporaneous and independent:  Our Interdata
port, Wollongong's, and and incomplete one by Tom Lyon and others
at Princeton (which probably started earlier, and was to VM/370).
Next, and a bit later, your question: the Vax port (32V) was by Tom London and
John Reiser, in a different research group at Bell Labs.  It was
licensed under essentially the same terms as V7, and did indeed
form the basis for the main BSD distributions (though CSRG
did also continue to have some PDP-11 versions).  Functionally
32V was essentially the same as V7 (nearly a pure port to the VAX).

 > UCB was given a DARPA grant to add Internetworking support to UNIX,
 > and the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at Berkeley took on this
 > task, releasing several versions of the fourth Berkeley Software Distribution

The interesting thing here (though maybe it's too much to go into)
is that although UCB's CSRG did receive important support from
ARPA to create and distribute the BSD systems to ARPA contractors
(universities and corporate as well as in the military), it was explicitly
not to do internetworking support, but rather the system as a whole.
The TCP/IP and Internet support were supposed to be done by
BBN (Bolt Beranek and Newman).   However, CSRG really wanted
to do it themselves, and did.

 > USL believed that Net/2 did in fact contains some remnants of 32V source
 > code, and took the Regents of UCB to court for breach of license conditions
 > and unauthorised distribution of UNIX source code. Eventually, a settlement
 > was reached where CSRG could distribute a `Lite' version of 4BSD in source
 > form, and which USL agreed to contain no UNIX source code. This release
 > was called 4.4BSD-Lite.

Pretty much right.  Actually the thing that inflamed USL was BSDI,
a commercial operation that used the "grey-room" 4.4BSD-Lite
code.  However, the UC was added to the suit in fairly short order.

>  Other rewrites of the Unix
> environment from scratch also exist: Coherent, Minix and the popular Linux.

Maybe the interesting thing about these is that Coherent and Minix
were early, and manifestly done from the specs (things like SVID
and other manuals), which were published; Linux was later, but
likewise from standards.




From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: old licenses
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Finally heard back from the Greensboro guy--

 > Dennis,

 > Unfortunately, my contact at SCO was unable to locate any of the old
 > agreements.
 > The earliest agreements that could be found were from 1984-1986 and would be
 > for System III or System V.

Here's an interesting idea: the court records from the UCB/BSDI suit!
It may be that they're sealed, though.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Strange book idea
Date: Fri, 17 Mar 2000 22:16:47 -0500
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I don't have time to think much about this (I'm about to
travel and have to finish slides).  Bug me again in a couple
of weeks?

But I guess the off-the-top-of-the-head reaction is that your question

 > + Who is the overriding `editor', i.e who wants to be, who has time :-)
 >   Ditto for chapter authors.

is the important one.

It's not so much who has control, it's who takes it.  I don't think there
are likely to be serious permissions questions, just playing the game
of asking.  If you want to write a book, you just gotta do it.

	Dennis


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Hi Dennis,
        After e-mailing you w.r.t an interview about the design of the
original UNIX API, I thought ``Why not a book?''. Here's my pitch:
 
+ A technical history of UNIX from 1969 to 1980, complementing Salus' book.
 
+ Many of the original papers could be republished.
 
+ Many of the little `notes' on your web page could be included.
 
+ Narrative chapters which alternate between paper reprints. These
  both weave a chronology thread which links the papers, but also
  reviews each of the Research Editions.
 
+ Other sections: interviews with Dennis & Ken on the original design.

+ Probably no author, more likely an editor. Authors for individual
  chapters.
 
+ Who gets to publish? I'd suspect Lucent would own copyright on most
  of the papers. Would Lucent publish, or could they give permission 
  to republish papers/notes to another publisher?

+ Who is the overriding `editor', i.e who wants to be, who has time :-)
  Ditto for chapter authors.

Anyway, I'd be keen on writing some parts. Do you have any suggestions,
comments etc.

Thanks,
	Warren
--upas-cskvdezhlizntgmfapnspjkzjw--





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CC: paulka@sco.COM
Subject: Re: Change to SCO's Ancient UNIX license
Date: Tue, 11 Apr 2000 23:31:30 -0400
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Interesting, and good, news.

Paul: Warren passed along your mail about the simplification of the
"ancient unix" licensing (along with a request to "keep it
under [my] hat for a bit," which of course I will (and when
you have something to make public, I'll link to it on
my own home page).

I think Warren has most of the material we have, but if I
can help directly, please let me know.

	Dennis Ritchie





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: SCO's UNIX src licenses officially $00.00
Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2000 03:39:16 -0400
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 > I was wondering if Lucent would be interested in buying back the
 > rights to 1st - 7th Edition and 32V, obviously at a significant
 > discount, and then setting a less restrictive license.

 > I wonder what value SCO puts on the rights to 1e - 7e and 32V?
 > Maybe an individual could buy the rights :-)

Keith Bostic sent early mail today about the SCO announcements, and it's also
elsewhere (e.g. /.)  Thanks for tipping me earlier.

Let me think a bit about the rest.  It seems likely that both
SCO and (if I try to interest Lucent) we should be calculating the
PR value (given the $0.00) versus the internal costs of maintaining
something useful, combined with the "startup" costs of doing any
official negotiation.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: SCO's UNIX src licenses officially $00.00
Date: Thu, 20 Apr 2000 15:14:24 -0400
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I don't know if you watch the Plan 9 list; if you do,
you know that we're in the throes of persuading
the lawyer to sit down and write an open-source
type licence for the new distribution.  It's agreed
in principle that this will be done, but we haven't
been able to extract a draft of the terms yet so
we can find if we have to argue about them.

I wonder what the effect of throwing the early
unix question in to this would be?  (Now that
I think of it, I wonder what would happen if
we raised the question of v8-v10?  They
don't actually have much SV in them.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Ken's PDP-11 configurator program
Date: Mon, 15 May 2000 20:20:34 -0400
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This is a multi-part message in MIME format.
--upas-eocneujglgyexvkqpbpijcabke
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Make of the program what you will (and have time for).

I'd already noticed  the new SCO policy (and recently have a link
to ancient.html on my links page).

	Dennis


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Subject: Re: Ken's PDP-11 configurator program
In-Reply-To: <200005150702.RAA21386@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "May 15, 2000  3: 2:14 am"
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Since the subject of old PDP-11s seems to have
> hotted up again, I decided to disgorge Ken's
> program for ordering PDP-11s.  It gives prices
> circa 1975 in US$, and knows about various restrictions
> like bus loads and what will fit in a box.  It's
> another (nearly the remainder) from the DECtape archives.
> 
> The program itself is written in old C--pre K&R 1-- (beware
> of the =- operators!).  It will take a bit of
> work to get going.  Quite possibly extraction
> of the tables is more interesting than running
> the program.
> 
> 	Dennis

Ah, you can't tempt me with this program so easily, it's not UNIX source
code. The easiest way to get this to work would be to compile it up under
5e or 6e. I'll have a go, but not immediately as work is keeing me busy.

SCO now have free UNIX source code licenses on their web site, plus
full access to our PUPS Archive via a hyperlink to a CGI script on my
web site. Go to http://www.sco.com/offers/ancient.html, agree to the
SCO license. On the next page, click on `apply for access to the PUPS Archive'.

I wonder when they will finally give up on the license itself :-)

Cheers,
	Warren
--upas-eocneujglgyexvkqpbpijcabke--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Ken's PDP-11 configurator program
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Since the subject of old PDP-11s seems to have
hotted up again, I decided to disgorge Ken's
program for ordering PDP-11s.  It gives prices
circa 1975 in US$, and knows about various restrictions
like bus loads and what will fit in a box.  It's
another (nearly the remainder) from the DECtape archives.

The program itself is written in old C--pre K&R 1-- (beware
of the =- operators!).  It will take a bit of
work to get going.  Quite possibly extraction
of the tables is more interesting than running
the program.

	Dennis


# To unbundle, run this file
echo c1.c
sed 's/.//' >c1.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD c1.c'
-/*
- *	code = d1d2d3d4
- *		d1 = discount
- *			0 NO
- *			1 Type 1
- *			2 Type 2
- *			3 MOD
- *			4 GT
- *		d2 = system units
- *			0-4 uses 0-4 SU
- *			5 3 extra (11/45)
- *			6 7 extra (11/40)
- *			7 6 extra (ba11-es)
- *			8 9 extra (h960)
- *		d3 = small periph slots
- *			0-4 uses 0-4
- *			5 3 extra (11/45)
- *			6 1 extra (11/40)
- *			7 4 extra (dd)
- *		d4 = loads
- *			0-4 uses 0-4
- *			5 17 extra (11/45)
- *			6 19 extra (11/40)
- *			7 18 extra (db)
- */
-int	table[]
-{					/*
-price	maint	code	name		*/
-16765,	121,	2555,	"kb11",		"11/45 CPU",
-4210,	32,	2000,	"kt11-c",	"11/45 segmentation",
-5290,	45,	2000,	"fp11-b",	"11/45 floating point",
-1950,	13,	2001,	"ms11-cc",	"Bi Polar controller",
-1950,	13,	2001,	"ms11-bc",	"1st MOS controller",
-1500,	13,	2001,	"ms11-bd",	"2nd MOS controller",
-1950,	16,	2000,	"ms11-cm",	"1K Bi Polar",
-2500,	16,	2000,	"ms11-cp",	"1K Bi Polar (parity)",
-3000,	42,	2000,	"ms11-br",	"MOS 4K memory",
-3420,	40,	2000,	"ms11-bt",	"MOS 4K memory (parity)",
-
-6245,	60,	2666,	"kd11-a",	"11/40 CPU",
-1400,	11,	2000,	"ke11-e",	"11/40 multiply/divide",
-1500,	11,	2000,	"ke11-f",	"11/40 floating point",
-2480,	21,	2000,	"kt11-d",	"11/40 segmentation",
-410,	5,	2000,	"kj11-a",	"11/40 stack limit",
-/* xx */
-810,	6,	2011,	"kg11-a",	"Cyclic check unit",
-300,	3,	2001,	"kw11-l",	"line clock",
-700,	6,	2011,	"kw11-p",	"programmable clock",
-
-4700,	37,	1201,	"mf11-l",	"8K core and controller",
-4900,	32,	1201,	"mf11-u",	"16K core and controller",
-5700,	32,	1202,	"mf11-lp",	"8K core (parity) and controller",
-6300,	27,	1202,	"mf11-up",	"16K core (parity) and controller",
-4400,	37,	1001,	"mm11-l",	"8K core",
-4500,	32,	1001,	"mm11-u",	"16K core",
-5400,	32,	1001,	"mm11-lp",	"8K core (parity)",
-5600,	27,	1001,	"mm11-up",	"16K core (parity)",
-
-400,	0,	3011,	"m792",		"16 word ROM",
-450,	3,	2011,	"bm792-ya",	"tty/paper tape bootstrap",
-450,	3,	2011,	"bm792-yb",	"disk/DECtape bootstrap",
-450,	3,	2011,	"bm792-yc",	"card reader bootstrap",
-450,	3,	2011,	"bm792-yh",	"cassette bootstrap",
-400,	2,	1011,	"bm873-ya",	"restart loader",
-700,	5,	2022,	"mr11-db",	"bulk bootstrap",
-
-5950,	27,	2001,	"rf11",		"controller",
-10700,	42,	2000,	"rs11",		".5MB fixed head disk",
-5000,	27,	1201,	"rjs",		"controller",
-9000,	48,	1000,	"rs03",		".5MB fixed head disk",
-13000,	58,	1000,	"rs04",		"1MB fixed head disk",
-5900,	42,	1101,	"rk11",		"disk controller",
-5100,	64,	1000,	"rk05-aa",	"2.5 moving head disk",
-11880,	74,	1,	"rp11",		"disk controller",
-20000,	159,	0,	"rp03-as",	"40MB moving head disk",
-
-3240,	27,	2001,	"tm11",		"tape controller",
-7505,	74,	2000,	"tu10-ee",	"9-chan tape drive",
-7505,	74,	2000,	"tu10-fe",	"7-chan tape drive",
-4400,	13,	2001,	"tc11",		"DECtape controller",
-5100,	32,	2000,	"tu56",		"DECtape drive",
-2990,	38,	2011,	"ta11-aa",	"Dual Cassette",
-
-5615,	58,	11,	"ls11-a",	"60LPM 132col 64char printer",
-11770,	53,	11,	"lv11-ba",	"500LPM 132col 96char printer/plotter",
-/* xx */
-12000,	60,	11,	"lp11-fa",	"300LPM 80col 64char printer",
-/* xx */
-13500,	65,	11,	"lp11-ha",	"300LPM 80col 96char printer",
-/* xx */
-17500,	75,	11,	"lp11-ja",	"300LPM 132col 64char printer",
-/* xx */
-19000,	80,	11,	"lp11-ka",	"300LPM 132col 96char printer",
-30000,	154,	11,	"lp11-ra",	"1200LPM 132col 64char printer",
-33000,	154,	11,	"lp11-sa",	"800LPM 132col 96char printer",
-9900,	72,	11,	"lp11-va",	"300LPM 132col 64char printer",
-11900,	72,	11,	"lp11-wa",	"230LPM 132col 96char printer",
-
-4860,	53,	11,	"cr11",		"300CPM 80col reader",
-5290,	53,	11,	"cm11-fa",	"200CPM 40col reader",
-10800,	74,	101,	"cd11-a",	"1000CPM 80col reader",
-15120,	95,	101,	"cd11-ea",	"1200CPM 80col reader",
-2400,	22,	2011,	"pr11",		"300CPS reader",
-3900,	38,	2011,	"pc11",		"300CPS reader 50CPS punch",
-
-2795,	32,	2000,	"la30-pa",	"DEC writer (parallel)",
-3195,	32,	2000,	"la30-ca",	"DEC writer (serial)",
-3195,	32,	2000,	"la30-ea",	"DEC writer (EIA)",
-1850,	37,	0,	"lt33-dc",	"Teletype 33 (ASR)",
-1400,	32,	0,	"lt33-cc",	"Teletype 33 (KSR)",
-4860,	32,	0,	"lt35-dc",	"Teletype 35 (ARS)",
-3240,	29,	0,	"lt35-cc",	"Teletype 35 (KSR)",
-2795,	23,	2000,	"vt05b-aa",	"Display (64 char)",
-2795,	23,	2000,	"vt05b-ba",	"Display (96 char)",
-2795,	23,	2000,	"vt05b-ca",	"Display (64 char EIA)",
-2795,	23,	2000,	"vt05b-da",	"Display (96 char EIA)",
-
-500,	6,	2011,	"lc11-a",	"DEC writer interface",
-500,	6,	2011,	"dl11-a",	"Teletype interface (20ma)",
-500,	6,	2011,	"dl11-c",	"Teletype interface(20ma)",
-525,	6,	2011,	"dl11-b",	"Teletype interface (EIA)",
-525,	6,	2011,	"dl11-d",	"Teletype interface (EIA)",
-550,	6,	2011,	"dl11-e",	"Teletype interface (EIA+ctrl)",
-
-13400,	135,	4000,	"gt40-aa",	"Graphics scope",
-14620,	162,	4000,	"gt40-ac",	"Graphics scope+ASR33",
-15695,	162,	4000,	"gt40-ae",	"Graphics scope+LA30",
-
-1080,	6,	2101,	"aa11-da",	"D to A",
-405,	5,	2000,	"ba614",	"D to A",
-3240,	75,	0,	"vt01-a",	"Tek 611",
-1080,	14,	0,	"vr01-a",	"Point scope",
-3240,	18,	0,	"vr14",		"Point scope",
-
-4400,	30,	2021,	"dh11-aa",	"Async multiplexer",
-4400,	30,	2021,	"dh11-ab",	"Async multiplexer",
-170,	5,	2000,	"dm11-da",	"line adapter",
-485,	10,	2000,	"dm11-db",	"line adapter (EIA)",
-1295,	18,	2001,	"dm11-bb",	"modem control",
-860,	5,	2000,	"dm11-dc",	"line adapter for control",
-3400,	30,	1101,	"dj11-aa",	"Async multiplexer",
-3100,	25,	1101,	"dj11-ab",	"Async multiplexer",
-3200,	30,	1101,	"dj11-ac",	"Async multiplexer",
-100,	0,	3000,	"m405",		"speed card",
-270,	3,	2100,	"dc11-aa",	"Async SU",
-270,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ab",	"Async SU",
-270,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ac",	"Async SU",
-375,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ad",	"Async SU",
-375,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ae",	"Async SU",
-270,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ag",	"Async SU",
-270,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ah",	"Async SU",
-375,	3,	2100,	"dc11-ax",	"Async SU",
-645,	7,	2001,	"dc11-da",	"port",
-1510,	18,	2101,	"dp11-da",	"Sync interface (201)",
-1940,	18,	2101,	"dp11-dc",	"Sync interface (303)",
-320,	3,	2000,	"dp11-ca",	"12 bit extender",
-215,	3,	2000,	"dp11-ka",	"clock",
-900,	5,	2011,	"du11-da",	"Sync interface",
-2800,	23,	2101,	"dq11-da",	"Sync interface",
-4200,	24,	2101,	"dq11-ea",	"Sync interface",
-150,	1,	2000,	"dq11-ka",	"clock",
-320,	5,	2100,	"dn11-aa",	"ACU interface",
-430,	5,	2001,	"dn11-da",	"ACU driver",
-
-430,	5,	2011,	"dr11-c",	"word interface",
-1290,	12,	2101,	"dr11-b",	"dma channel",
-
-185,	0,	2170,	"dd11-b",	"Small Periph mount",
-1080,	5,	2107,	"db11-a",	"Bus repeater",
-2400,	15,	2800,	"h960-da",	"Extension box and cabinet",
-2100,	5,	2800,	"ba11-fd",	"Extension box",
-400,	0,	2700,	"ba11-es",	"Extension box",
-
-5000,	0,	2000,	"qj580-ac",	"rsx-11d on DECtape",
-5000,	0,	2000,	"qj580-ad",	"rsx-11d on 9-track",
-5000,	0,	2000,	"qj580-af",	"rsx-11d on 7-track",
-5000,	0,	2000,	"qj580-ae",	"rsx-11d on disk cartridge",
-100,	0,	2000,	"qj580-gz",	"rsx-11d manuals",
-4000,	0,	2000,	"qr430-ac",	"rsts-e on DECtape",
-4000,	0,	2000,	"qr430-ad",	"rsts-e on 9-track",
-4000,	0,	2000,	"qr430-ae",	"rsts-e on disk cartridge",
-4000,	0,	2000,	"qr430-af",	"rsts-e on 7-track",
-1700,	0,	2000,	"qj250-ac",	"dos/batch on DECtape",
-1700,	0,	2000,	"qj250-ad",	"dos/batch on 9-track",
-1700,	0,	2000,	"qj250-af",	"dos/batch on 7-track",
-1700,	0,	2000,	"qj250-ae",	"dos/batch on disk cartridge",
-12,	0,	2000,	"qj250-am",	"batch manuals",
-60,	0,	2000,	"qj220-am",	"dos manuals",
-
-1,	0,	0,	"conf",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"preq",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"item",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"list",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"xxmm",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"xxdh",		"",
-1,	0,	0,	"xxtc",		"",
-0
-};
//GO.SYSIN DD c1.c
echo c2.c
sed 's/.//' >c2.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD c2.c'
-int	preq[]
-{
-"kt11-c",	"kb11",		1,
-"fp11-b",	"kb11",		1,
-"ms11-br",	"ms11-bc",	4,
-"ms11-bt",	"ms11-bc",	4,
-"ms11-cm",	"ms11-bd",	4,
-"ms11-cp",	"ms11-bd",	4,
-"ms11-bc",	"kb11",		2,
-"ms11-bd",	"kb11",		2,
-
-"ke11-f",	"ke11-e",	1,
-"kt11-d",	"kd11-a",	1,
-
-"mm11-l",	"mf11-l",	2,
-"mm11-lp",	"mf11-lp",	2,
-"xxmm",		"mm11-l",	12,
-
-"rs11",		"rf11",		8,
-"rk05-aa",	"rk11",		8,
-"rp03-as",	"rp11",		8,
-
-"tu10-ee",	"tm11",		8,
-"tu10-fe",	"tm11",		8,
-"tu56",		"tc11",		4,
-"xxtc",		"tu56",		2,
-
-"la30-pa",	"lc11-a",	1,
-"la30-ca",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"lt33-dc",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"lt33-cc",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"lt35-dc",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"lt35-cc",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"vt05b-aa",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"vt05b-ba",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"vt05b-ca",	"dl11-a",	1,
-"vt05b-da",	"dl11-a",	1,
-
-"vt01-a",	"ba614",	1,
-"vr01-a",	"ba614",	1,
-"vr14",		"ba614",	1,
-"ba614",	"aa11-da",	4,
-
-"dm11-da",	"dh11-aa",	4,
-"dm11-db",	"dh11-aa",	4,
-"dm11-bb",	"dh11-aa",	1,
-"dm11-dc",	"dm11-bb",	4,
-"xxdh",		"dm11-dc",	4,
-"m405",		"dh11-aa",	2,
-
-"dc11-da",	"dc11-aa",	2,
-
-"dp11-ca",	"dp11-da",	1,
-"dp11-ka",	"dp11-da",	1,
-"dn11-da",	"dn11-aa",	4,
-
-0
-};
//GO.SYSIN DD c2.c
echo c3.c
sed 's/.//' >c3.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD c3.c'
-char	*pkg[]
-{
-
-/*
- * useful synonyms
- */
-
-"/45",		"kb11",		0,
-"/40",		"kd11-a",	0,
-"dl",		"dl11-a",	0,
-"kl",		"dl11-a",	0,
-"dl11",		"dl11-a",	0,
-"dd",		"dd11-b",	0,
-"dd11",		"dd11-b",	0,
-"db",		"db11-a",	0,
-"db11",		"db11-a",	0,
-"rom",		"m792",		0,
-"aa11-d",	"aa11-da",	0,
-"aa11",		"aa11-da",	0,
-"vt01",		"vt01-a",	0,
-"vt",		"vt01-a",	0,
-"vt05",		"vt05b-aa",	0,
-"vr01",		"vr01-a",	0,
-"rk05",		"rk05-aa",	0,
-"rk",		"rk05-aa",	0,
-"tc",		"xxtc",		0,
-"rk11",		"rk11-ca",	0,
-"dc",		"dc11-da",	0,
-"rp",		"rp03",		0,
-"rf",		"rs11",		0,
-"tm",		"tu10",		0,
-"pc",		"pc11",		0,
-"kw",		"kw11-l",	0,
-"dn",		"dn11-da",	0,
-"dr11",		"dr11-c",	0,
-"box",		"h960-da",	0,
-"dh",		"xxdh",		0,
-"mm",		"xxmm",		0,
-"la30",		"la30-ca",	0,
-"rp03",		"rp03-as",	0,
-"tu10",		"tu10-ee",	0,
-"bulk",		"mr11-db",	0,
-"clock",	"kw11-l",	0,
-
-/*
- * packages
- */
-
-"rf11-aa",
-	"rf11",
-	"rs11",
-	0,
-"rk11-de",
-	"rk11",
-	"rk05",
-	0,
-"rp11-ce",
-	"rp11",
-	"rp03",
-	0,
-"tc11-ga",
-	"tc11",
-	"tu56",
-	0,
-"tm11-ea",
-	"tm11",
-	"tu10",
-	0,
-"tm11-fa",
-	"tm11",
-	"tu10-fe",
-	0,
-"core-16kp",
-	"mf11-up",
-	0,
-"core-32kp",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"mm11-up",
-	0,
-"mos-16kp",
-	"ms11-bc",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	0,
-"/45-cu",
-	"/45",
-	"clock",
-	"core-16kp",
-	"bulk",
-	"dl11",
-	"la30",
-	0,
-"/45-cw",
-	"/45",
-	"kt11-c",
-	"clock",
-	"core-32kp",
-	"bulk",
-	"dl11",
-	"la30",
-	0,
-"/50-cu",
-	"/45",
-	"mos-16kp",
-	"clock",
-	"bulk",
-	"dl11",
-	"la30",
-	0,
-"/50-cw",
-	"/45",
-	"kt11-c",
-	"clock",
-	"mos-16kp",
-	"core-16kp",
-	"bulk",
-	"dl11",
-	"la30",
-	0,
-"/45-rp",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tc11-ga",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ac",
-	0,
-"/50-rp",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"mm11-up",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tc11-ga",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ac",
-	0,
-"/45-rs",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-rs",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"mm11-up",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-ru",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"fp11-b",
-	"rp11-ce",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-ru",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"mm11-up",
-	"fp11-b",
-	"rp11-ce",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qr430-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-ps",
-	"/45-cu",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"qj250-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-ps",
-	"/50-cu",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"qj250-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-pu",
-	"/45-cu",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"tc11-ga",
-	"qj250-ac",
-	0,
-"/50-pu",
-	"/50-cu",
-	"rf11-aa",
-	"tc11-ga",
-	"qj250-ac",
-	0,
-"/50-pw",
-	"/50-cu",
-	"ms11-bd",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	"ms11-bt",
-	"fp11-b",
-	"rp11-ce",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"cd11-ea",
-	"lp11-ra",
-	"dd11",
-	"qj250-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-na",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-na",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-nc",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-nc",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"mm11-up",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-"/45-nh",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"mf11-up",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"rk05",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qj580-ae",
-	0,
-"/50-nh",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"mm11-up",
-	"rk11-de",
-	"rk05",
-	"qj580-ae",
-	0,
-"/45-ne",
-	"/45-cw",
-	"core-32kp",
-	"rp11-ce",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"cr11",
-	"lp11-ja",
-	"dd11",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-"/50-ne",
-	"/50-cw",
-	"core-32kp",
-	"rp11-ce",
-	"tm11-ea",
-	"cd11-ea",
-	"lp11-ra",
-	"dd11",
-	"h960-da",
-	"qj580-ad",
-	0,
-0
-};
//GO.SYSIN DD c3.c
echo m.c
sed 's/.//' >m.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD m.c'
-int	nsu;
-int	nspc;
-int	nld;
-double	fprice;
-double	fmaint;
-double	fdisc[10];
-char	*ndisc[10]
-{
-	"None  ",
-	"Type 1",
-	"Type 2",
-	"Module",
-	"GT 40 ",
-	0,
-};
-char	item[400];
-struct
-{
-	char	*name1;
-	char	*name2;
-	int	count;
-} preq[];
-struct
-{
-	int price;
-	int maint;
-	int code;
-	char *name;
-	char *descr;
-} table[];
-char	*pkg[];
-int	fin;
-char	buf[100];
-
-main(argc, argv)
-char *argv[];
-{
-	int i, c, n;
-	int flag;
-	double fmul();
-
-	fprice = 0.;
-	fmaint = 0.;
-	nsu = 0;
-	nspc = 0;
-	nld = 0;
-
-	for(i=1; i<argc; i++) {
-		if(argv[i][0] == '-') {
-			if(compos(1, argv[i]+1))
-				printf("%s: bad arg\n", argv[i]+1);
-			continue;
-		}
-		fin = open(argv[i], 0);
-		if(fin < 0) {
-			printf("%s: cannot open\n", argv[i]);
-			exit();
-		}
-	}
-
-loop:
-
-	/*
-	 * read in quantity
-	 * ignore space and tab
-	 */
-
-	n = 1;
-	c = getchar();
-	while(c==' ' || c=='	')
-		c = getchar();
-	if(c>='0' && c<='9') {
-		n = 0;
-		while(c>='0' && c<='9') {
-			n = n*10 + c-'0';
-			c = getchar();
-		}
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * read up to item name
-	 */
-
-	while(c==' ' || c=='	')
-		c = getchar();
-
-	/*
-	 * read in item name
-	 * terminate with null
-	 */
-
-	for(i=0; i<99; i++) {
-		if(c == '\n')
-			break;
-		if(c == '\0')
-			goto pass2;
-		buf[i] = c;
-		c = getchar();
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * ignore blank lines
-	 */
-
-	if(i == 0)
-		goto loop;
-	buf[i] = '\0';
-	if(compos(n, buf))
-		printf("%s: cannot recognize\n", buf);
-	goto loop;
-
-pass2:
-
-	/*
-	 * examine for contigencies
-	 */
-
-	flag = 0;
-	i = lookup("preq");
-	if(item[i])
-	for(i=0; preq[i].name1 != 0; i++) {
-		c = lookup(preq[i].name1);
-		if(c < 0)
-			goto badpreq;
-		n = preq[i].count;
-		n = (item[c] + n - 1)/n;
-		if(n <= 0)
-			continue;
-		c = lookup(preq[i].name2);
-		if(c < 0) {
-		badpreq:
-			printf("bad preq table:\n\t%s\n", preq[i].name1);
-			continue;
-		}
-		n =- item[c];
-		if(n > 0) {
-			if(compos(n, preq[i].name2))
-					printf("%s: bad preq\n", preq[i].name2);
-			flag++;
-		}
-	}
-	if(flag)
-		goto pass2;
-
-	/*
-	 * clean up system units,
-	 * spc's, and loads
-	 */
-
-	i = lookup("conf");
-	if(item[i]) {
-		while(nspc < 0)
-			if(compos(1, "dd11-b")) {
-				printf("no dd-11\n");
-				break;
-			}
-		while(nld < 0)
-			if(compos(1, "db11-a")) {
-				printf("no db-11\n");
-				break;
-			}
-		while(nsu < 0) {
-			if(compos(1, "h960-da")) {
-				printf("no h-960\n");
-				break;
-			}
-			if(nsu < 0 && compos(1, "ba11-f"))
-				printf("no ba11\n");
-		}
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * print pretty table
-	 */
-
-pass3:
-	i = lookup("list");
-	flag = item[i];
-	i = lookup("item");
-	if(flag || item[i]) {
-		for(i=0; i<200; i++)
-		if(item[i]!=0 && table[i].price!=1) {
-			n = item[i];
-			printf("%2d %-8s", n, table[i].name);
-			printf("%4.0f", fmul(n, table[i].maint));
-			printf("%8.0f", fmul(n, table[i].price));
-			if(flag)
-				printf(" %s", table[i].descr);
-			printf("\n");
-		}
-		printf("          ");
-	}
-	printf("%5.0f%8.0f\n", fmaint, fprice);
-	printf("\nnsu = %4d\nspc = %4d\nnld = %4d\n\n",
-		nsu, nspc, nld);
-	for(i=0; ndisc[i]; i++)
-		printf("%s%8.0f\n", ndisc[i], fdisc[i]);
-}
-
-compos(n, bp)
-char *bp;
-{
-	int i, p[4], d, j;
-	double fmul();
-
-	i = lookup(bp);
-	if(i >= 0)
-		goto found;
-
-	/*
-	 * look up in package table
-	 */
-
-	for(i=0; pkg[i]; i++) {
-		d = 0;
-		if(equal(pkg[i], bp))
-			d++;
-		for(i++; pkg[i]; i++)
-			if(d && compos(n, pkg[i]))
-				printf("%s: bad pkg\n", pkg[i]);
-		if(d)
-			return(0);
-	}
-	return(1);
-
-found:
-	item[i] =+ n;
-	if(table[i].price == 1)
-		return(0);
-	d = table[i].code;
-	for(j=0; j<4; j++) {
-		p[j] = d%10;
-		d =/ 10;
-	}
-	fmaint =+ fmul(n, table[i].maint);
-	fprice =+ fmul(n, table[i].price);
-	switch(p[0]) {
-	case 5:
-		p[0] = -17;
-		break;
-
-	case 6:
-		p[0] = -19;
-		break;
-
-	case 7:
-		p[0] = -18;
-		break;
-	}
-	nld =- p[0]*n;
-	switch(p[1]) {
-
-	case 5:
-		p[1] = -3;
-		break;
-
-	case 6:
-		p[1] = -1;
-		break;
-
-	case 7:
-		p[1] = -4;
-		break;
-	}
-	nspc =- p[1]*n;
-	switch(p[2]) {
-
-	case 5:
-		p[2] = -3;
-		break;
-
-	case 6:
-		p[2] = -7;
-		break;
-
-	case 7:
-		p[2] = -6;
-		break;
-
-	case 8:
-		p[2] = -9;
-		break;
-
-	case 9:
-		p[2] = -18;
-		break;
-	}
-	nsu =- p[2]*n;
-	fdisc[p[3]] =+ fmul(n, table[i].price);
-	return(0);
-}
-
-double fmul(n, p)
-{
-	double f;
-
-	f = p;
-	if(f < 0.)
-		f =+ 65536.;
-	f =* n;
-	return(f);
-}
-
-lookup(bp)
-char *bp;
-{
-	int i;
-
-	for(i=0; table[i].price!=0; i++)
-	if(equal(table[i].name, bp))
-		return(i);
-	return(-1);
-}
-
-equal(s1, s2)
-char *s1, *s2;
-{
-	register char *c1, *c2;
-
-	c1 = s1;
-	c2 = s2;
-	while(*c1++ == *c2)
-		if(*c2++ == '\0')
-			return(1);
-	return(0);
-}
//GO.SYSIN DD m.c
echo min40.cf
sed 's/.//' >min40.cf <<'//GO.SYSIN DD min40.cf'
-1	kd11-a
-1	ke11-e
-1	kt11-d
-1	kw11-l
-1	mf11-u
-1	mm11-u
-1	rk11
-1	rk05
-1	lt33-dc
-1	dl11-a
//GO.SYSIN DD min40.cf
echo min45.cf
sed 's/.//' >min45.cf <<'//GO.SYSIN DD min45.cf'
-1	kb11
-1	kt11-c
-1	kw11-l
-1	mf11-u
-1	mm11-u
-1	rk11
-1	rk05
-1	lt33-dc
-1	dl11-a
//GO.SYSIN DD min45.cf
echo rc
sed 's/.//' >rc <<'//GO.SYSIN DD rc'
-conf -list -/45-cu </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-cu </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-cw </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-cw </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-na </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-na </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-nc </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-nc </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-ne </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-ne </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-nh </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-nh </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-ps </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-ps </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-pu </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-pu </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-pw </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-rp </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-rp </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-rs </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-rs </dev/null
-conf -list -/45-ru </dev/null
-conf -list -/50-ru </dev/null
//GO.SYSIN DD rc
echo x
sed 's/.//' >x <<'//GO.SYSIN DD x'
-11/45
-64k
-8dh
//GO.SYSIN DD x





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: PUPS Stats + plan9?
Date: Sun, 21 May 2000 20:34:51 -0400
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 > [Dennis, this bounced 1st time]

We had independent weather-related electrical,  network, and a bit
of Plan 9-related turbulence around the end of the week.
Stability seems back now.

 > 	Just some stats. Since SCO set up a hyperlink to the PUPS Archive
 > here, I've had 11.6 Gbytes of downloads. Must be a record for bytes of
 > PDP-11 software distribution in a given period. I wonder how the SCO web
 > site has been?

Glad to see it--though these storms can be a bit of a pain while
they're happening.

 > Any luck with the new license for Plan 9? Will it cover previous Plan 9
 > releases, or just the latest one? And do you think Lucent would allow
 > us to add 8th, 9th and 10th Edition UNIX into the PUPS Archive?

The Plan 9 license is back from the lawyer, but is still being trimmed,
though mostly at the level of fixing typos.  I think it will be
a bit of a surprise to some who follow the 9fans list or comp.os.plan9.
There is also the question of arranging appropriate PR
about it vs. Inferno.  There is going to be some PR about both.

I've thought about 8th and later Unix editions.  As I think I have
mentioned, there never was a 9th or 10th edition distribution, though
there was a printed manual for both.   For the 8th there is
a coherent collection.  The question here is whether we want
to put it under the shadow of SCO, or BSD, or whatever.

	Regards,
	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: PUPS Stats + plan9?
Date: Sun, 21 May 2000 20:56:19 -0400
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 > I thought that you could use a license similar to the Plan9 one that is
 > currently being crafted. Anyway, at any time Lucent is prepared to offer
 > this stuff, we have a disk with unused 0s and 1s sitting here....

I don't think there is a Lucent problem with the material as such,
except perhaps figuring out whether 8th (say) belongs more
to us or in some way to SCO, and what to do about the
fact that there is considerable old BSD code there.
Both Plan 9 distributions (existing and about-to-be)
are complicated much by other-party material,
in the Plan 9 case, especially by proprietary fonts
for the screen and for printers.  (We even had a dust-up
with the heirs of Bela Lugosi, and also whoever takes
care of Ed Wood's interests).

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au, norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca
Subject: Re: 10e `distribution'
Date: Thu, 15 Jun 2000 22:11:33 -0400
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As I've probably told both Norman and Warren on various
occasions though likely in pieces, the problems with a 10e
'distribution' are basically two:

First is just the mechanics of getting something barely
coherent, meaning getting rid of stuff that might
have been fiddled for 10e but isn't interesting.
We do have a snapshot called bowell.src.fs, but
it's 360 megabytes. If norman has something along these
lines (but much smaller) that might be interesting.

Second is the legalities.  A lot of the messiness in arranging
both Plan 9 distributions (including the latest) was in dealing
with third-party rights--things we got from somewhere.
Various bits that were in the second Plan 9 aren't in the
recent one just because of the work involved in correspondence
with people who might well be amenable, but finding the
right person and dickering over details became cumbersome.
(This gets into the first point; just identifying what not to
include involves some work).

The kernel is an interesting question--who claims it?
It is a well-delimited area and the third-party aspect
is limited too.  It derives from an early BSD (pre-"liberated" BSD)
together with our work (including Norman's)
and thus is arguably SCO's, especially given that the
most important 10e (from 8e) changes are the streams
ideas.  So I suspect that what is needed is the inclusion
of it into the SCO ancient unix mechanism.   I'm sure
that if SCO accepted that, there would be no local problem.

Specifically, there won't be anyone here willing to assert
that 10e or 8e is ours to do with as we please, though
if it were, a license along the lines of the current Plan 9
one would be trivial; the sticking point is that there
is no interest in asserting the ownership.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: 10e `distribution'
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8th-10th edition were Vax-only and ultimately derive
from 32V via Berkeley (together with our stuff).  This would be the argument
to use with SCO, given that 32v is already in Ancient Unix,
and also that SCO owns the direct descendant of the
streams stuff,  done by us originally, and now in SV.

 > Would Lucent be prepared to claim that they own those parts of 10e that
 > are not specifically part of 7e?

This is exactly  the part that's hard, not because of possible
Lucent claim on parts, but just because convincing Lucent to assert
such a claim will get people into a place they're not interested in exploring.
The problem isn't to protect our interest in the code, it's avoiding
an attempt to make claims on territory that has pretty much
been conceded to SCO, and whose terms are already reasonable.

I think I could fairly easily get a letter saying that Lucent has no problem
with v8 (or v10) availability provided that SCO made it clear that
they were OK with this under their ancient unix terms.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Norman Wilson <norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca>
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com, wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au
Subject: Re: 10e `distribution'
Date: 	Fri, 16 Jun 2000 10:16:18 -0400
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To answer the easy questions (before I check out of my hotel
in Albuquerque, and hence go offline for another couple of days):

I'm pretty sure the kernel that turned into 8e was an old enough
4BSD (4.1a or something) that it required only a 32V license.
The sticking points are the stream I/O system, /proc, and
pjw's network file system, all of which were adopted in one
way or another by System V, even though they were changed
a lot in the process.  (I was going to write `mutated' but choked
on the mixed metaphor, and it's too close to `mutilated,' which is
true to some extent but not exactly fair.)

10e runs only on VAXes, and I believe never ran on anything
else; certainly the 4.xBSD kernel it is based on was full of VAX
dependencies.  So the `16-bit PDP-11' clause is no help.  The
`early 32-bit' clause probably applies to the base BSD kernel,
but not to the things that make it V8.

So, at least for the kernel, it's up to SCO.

And then there's all the code that runs in user mode.  The
most obvious distinguishing feature is all the jerq support;
that ended up in much-changed form in System V too.  There
are newer copies of things like troff and awk, some of which
may cause trouble, some not.  There are also some things that
were adopted from System V into the Research system; make
comes to mind.  That the code even in 10e is all at least
five years old (most of it probably at least ten) may help, but
I think we will still need to clear it with SCO.  It may be easier
for the V8 tape (if anyone still has a copy; come to think of it,
there may be one in Australia, at either Sydney Uni or UNSW,
I forget which) because that is much older.

On the other hand, although the ideas and some of the code
are in System V, the Research system certainly isn't the same
as System V, nor is it a successor system; so one could argue
that the Ancient UNIX license applies anyway.  I take that to
mean not that we shouldn't ask SCO explicitly but that they
can declare 8e-10e to be within the intent of the existing license
rather than drawing up a new one.

I am less worried about the work of sorting the code out
If I understand correctly, Warren's primary interest is historic
preservation, so weeding out `uninteresting' stuff is probably
unnecessary and in fact undesirable.  If we can weed out
the stuff that might make SCO or Lucent or AT&T unhappy if
released, that is probably good enough; if someone wants to
run the system, they can do the work.  (And, as I said earlier,
I'll be going through a form of the wretched make-it-all-work-again
exercise for my own purposes, though I plan to toss a lot of
old code aside.  Dennis will remember how much I like to do
that anyway.)

My snapshot is in two pieces: a copy of most of bowell's
/usr/src, leaving out stuff that was just there for reference;
a copy of r70's root and /usr with a few obvious cleanups,
e.g. I took care to leave the password file behind.  Both
were taken sometime in the summer of 1995.  They add up
to something like 200MB.  It's no skin off my nose to spend
a day or two assembling them and writing a few explanatory
notes for posterity and trimming away major subsystems that
we can't clear up the licensing for and so on.  The first question
is whether SCO will let us do it at all.

Dennis: do you know whether any of Andrew's old optical-disk
backups contain enough stuff to reconstruct a 9th-Edition-era
snapshot?  I can't remember just when he started that work.

Ironically, I'll be in Santa Cruz this Sunday, but that is presumably
not a good day to talk to SCO's lawyers, and in any rate I'd
rather not do business myself that day.






From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: 10e `distribution'
In-Reply-To: <200006160211.MAA29034@csadfa.cs.adfa.edu.au> from "dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com" at "Jun 15, 2000 10:11:33 pm"
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Date: Fri, 16 Jun 2000 12:30:25 +1000 (EST)
Cc: wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au, norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> So I suspect that what is needed is the inclusion
> of it into the SCO ancient unix mechanism.   I'm sure
> that if SCO accepted that, there would be no local problem.

What platform or platforms does 10th Edition run on? I ask because the
SCO Ancient UNIX source license says:

	The SOURCE CODE PRODUCTS to which SCO grants rights under this
	AGREEMENT are restricted to the following UNIX Operating Systems,
	including SUCCESSOR OPERATING SYSTEMs, that operate on the 16-Bit
	PDP-11 CPU and early versions of the 32-Bit UNIX Operating System
	with specific exclusion of UNIX System V and successor operating
	systems:

        	16-Bit UNIX Editions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 32-bit 32V

If 10th Edition runs on the PDP-11 platform, then I believe that Lucent
could distribute the source code, as it is a successor system. We already
have a similar agreement from DEC/Compaq to allow Ultrix-11 to be
distributed to holders of the SCO Ancient UNIX license.

 
> Specifically, there won't be anyone here willing to assert
> that 10e or 8e is ours to do with as we please, though
> if it were, a license along the lines of the current Plan 9
> one would be trivial; the sticking point is that there
> is no interest in asserting the ownership.
> 	Dennis

Would Lucent be prepared to claim that they own those parts of 10e that
are not specifically part of 7e? If so, and if 10e runs on the PDP-11,
we can proceed as we did with Ultrix-11.

Thanks again,
	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Wasn't Dave Kapilow's Research-UNIX-on-Sun stuff done during
the Ninth Edition era?  If so, a copy of that tape might be of
interest.  I think Geoff Collyer had an official copy of that tape
when he was at U of T; I'll ask him.






From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au
Subject: Re: K&R c pre-processor
Date: Sat, 1 Jul 2000 22:17:21 -0400
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This is a multi-part message in MIME format.
--upas-puxcawqbsxrjtdlpkzedfipxys
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I know of only two cpps from here;   the one in  V7 V8...V10
whose README says that it's a version
of the Reiser one from V7,  and the one I did more recently,
which is definitely intended for ANSI (as of C89).  Both
are readily available; for example the ANSI one is part
of LCC.

In looking through versions of the earlier one (directly descended
from V7 via Reiser and Berkeley) there are
a lot of messy differences.  (I was tempted to say
a priori that they wouldn't be there, but they are.)

What's actually needed?

	Dennis


--upas-puxcawqbsxrjtdlpkzedfipxys
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@cs.adfa.edu.au>
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Subject: K&R c pre-processor
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com (Dennis Ritchie)
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Dennis,
	Someone just asked me about a freely-available K&R C pre-processor.
Definitely K&R, not ANSI C. I have a vague memory that you posted such a
beast, or gave me one, about 5 years ago.

Many thanks for any pointers.

Cheers!
	Warren
--upas-puxcawqbsxrjtdlpkzedfipxys--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: bostic@abyssinian.sleepycat.com, clemc@mro.dec.com,
        dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com, henry@zoo.toronto.edu, mash@mash.engr.sgi.com,
        mckusick@McKusick.COM, rhaight@jedi.accn.org, ted@softbank.com,
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Subject: Any USG releases still out there?
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All,		[ e-mail to several people ]

	The archive of old UNIXes I maintain here has a serious gap when
it comes to the releases from USG. All I've got is copies of PWB/UNIX 1.0
donated by Keith Bostic and Henry Spencer (thanks guys), and Mini UNIX.
I think I've squeezed everything I can out of Dennis :-) Many thanks!

Is there anything from USG you might have which could be added into our
Unix Archive? I'd love these things:

	PWB/UNIX before 1.0, PWB/UNIX 2.0, MERT, UNIX/TS (any versions),
CB UNIX, anything that eventually led to Sys III.

The archive at present does contain SysIII and SysV for the PDP-11. I
should mention that the archive can be acccessed by the web or ftp.
The details are at http://minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au/TUHS/archive_sites.html.
You need to know the username (au2108) and password (wup6elb), and be
covered by a source license.

No source license? Go to http://www.sco.com/offers/ancient.html to get one.

Finally, a bit of nostalgia from the PWB/UNIX 1.0 files appears below.

Cheers,
	Warren


     Installation of PWB/UNIX Edition 1.0

DISPOSITION:

     PWB User's Manual (User's Documentation, Book One)

               "The air is humming,
               And something great is coming.
               Come on, deliver to me ..."

                    - West Side Story
                      L. Bernstein & S. Sondheim

PWB/UNIX Edition 1.0 is currently being tested on UNIX A.  It
will be installed on the other BISP PDP-11's as follows:

     UNIX D:    6/6/77
     UNIX B,F:  6/13/77

PWB/UNIX Edition 1.0 will be available to the rest of the world
on 7/1/77.  It will not be installed on Systems C and E; those
users are moving to the new Systems G and H in July, and they
will get PWB/UNIX Edition 1.0 at that time.

There are a number of differences between PWB/UNIX Edition 1.0
and the "old" version currently installed on PWB Systems B-F.
These differences range from major to trivial. [long list omitted]





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: research 8th edition
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Someone asked me about this recently--
Did anything ever happen with SCO on this?
All I can find in my mailbox is inconclusive.
(Actually, would it be Caldera now?)

I have a still-live link on my pages to the ancient unix license,
but I couldn't see how to get to it from
the SCO home pages.

	Dennis





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Thx.  That's the link I have.

I'll deal with the particular inquiries I got; I was just
wondering whether something had happened that
I forgot or didn't hear about.

	Regards,
	Dennis


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Subject: Re: research 8th edition
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Someone asked me about this recently--
> Did anything ever happen with SCO on this?
> All I can find in my mailbox is inconclusive.
> (Actually, would it be Caldera now?)
> 
> I have a still-live link on my pages to the ancient unix license,
> but I couldn't see how to get to it from
> the SCO home pages.
> 
> 	Dennis

Hi Dennis, the SCO page is http://www.sco.com/offers/ancient.html

No, I haven't heard from SCO at all. I might send them in another e-mail.

As for who now owns the rights to the source, who knows? SCO are still
giving out electronic licenses, for all that's worth ....

I'll let you know what I come up with.

Many thanks again!

	Warren
--upas-dcieahachwhoubvlpyozjjiqko--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I have suspicions about the possibility for 4th edition, but
if it's real I'd like to grab it instanter.  The Miller Interdata
version would be a real find also.  Thanks for keeping me
informed.

These, together with a PWB, are things about which I
think there are no IP issues given agreements you already
have.

	Dennis


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Subject: More old tapes
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Dennis, interesting news. From Greg Lehey:

>> I was talking to Henry Hall this morning, and he tells me he thinks he
>> has some old UNIX tapes, possibly 4th Edition, 5th Edition and PWB.
>> They'd be on 9" tapes, probably 800 or 1600 bpi.  Henry's in Concorde
>> MA.

And from Richar Miller, who was at Wollongong Uni in Australia but now in
the UK; he has a copy of the Wollongong Interdata port of 6th Edition on
tape as well.

If & when we get these copied, I'll pass their contents on to you.

Cheers,
	Warren
--upas-spmbxmqnonhtsouqqwuplpjyfb--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Richard's thinking just like me--the basic stuff (e.g. kernel) no one
really cares about now in terms of IP,  but there are some
adhesions that persist.

I don't recall Henry Hall either, but something might jog
the memory.  See what happens, I guess.

	Dennis


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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> I have suspicions about the possibility for 4th edition, but
> if it's real I'd like to grab it instanter.  The Miller Interdata
> version would be a real find also.  Thanks for keeping me
> informed.
> 
> These, together with a PWB, are things about which I
> think there are no IP issues given agreements you already
> have.
> 
> 	Dennis

Richard Miller thinks there may be some IP in the Interdata port that
flowed on to the Wollongong Group. If not, the Uni of Wollongong might
claim it. Anyway, he's contacting some people to get a blessing at least
from the Uni.

I don't know Henry Hall, do you know him? I guess you let out 4th Ed
to a few places after SOSP/CACM, so it is possible, just unlikely, that
there is a surviving copy.

Cheers,
	Warren
--upas-qglidllfmqiqqwizxrotukkgsd--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Thanks for (re-)sending on the question to SCO--at least
it might begin to smoke out whether the ancient license
stuff is going to continue with them or Caldera.  Maybe
this is like what happened when we were trying to get
the Lions book permissions from SCO just as they were
taking over from Novell.  Took a while to sort this out.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > The short answer is that, until the deal closes around the first of the year,
 > there is pretty much a moratorium on doing anything with the intellectual
 > property -- I think SCO just wants to get the whole thing turned over to
 > Caldera, and let them figure out what they want to do with it.

Thanks for the note to Warren and me--I understand the situation better
now.  It's much like the moment when the Unix property was
about to be turned over from Novell to SCO and we approached
Michels and Tilson about the reprinting of the Lions book.
Both were sympathetic, but had other things to worry about
at the moment.  (Happily, once the deal was done, it all worked
out.)

The 8th Edition question has its own complications (e.g. there
is much newer code involved than in the things that are
part of the currrent "historical" SCO offerings).  But I can
certainly understand why SCO has other IP issues to
think about now.

	Dennis Ritchie





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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How'd you manage to come by a 3rd or 4th edition manual?
Even I would have to go into the Labs to get the 3rd!
Or 2nd, for that matter.  I do have 4-7 at home, and
of course the 1st is online.

I made a bit of a start at the 10th online, incidentally.
 http://plan9.bell-labs.com/10thEdMan
This is not announced yet, and not linked from anywhere.

So far it has just a couple of the papers from vol 2
and some of its interesting pictures.  I'm not sure how
to carry this--doing the main pages doesn't seem too hard
but the papers are a problem.  Mechanically they aren't
in as good shape as I thought at first, and many of them
are about programs you can't get any more and of course
were done by others.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I must be getting old--yes, the v2 and v3 are indeed still on line
here also.  I did just what I should have done a bit over a year
ago, and put the v3 and v4 references into my shell script for
mounting the local  archived systems.  I'd forgotten that
they were buried, let alone where.

Indexing is important!

About the scanning of v2 and v5: I am confident that there is
no problem with doing this.  I'm a little surprised that we or
you or Norman  haven't turned up the troff version of the 5th
manual.  But in any case, it is fairly clear (based on experience
with 1,3,4,6,7) that adding the missing ones couldn't cause
a furore.

Shannon's been away for a long time--he went to MIT
even before I arrived.  I think I only met him once, and
"met" is the wrong word--he gave a local talk when I
was in high school or earlier, and showed the mouse-maze
demo that is pictured in many of the obit photos.  This
was especially neat--he needed two relay flip-flops per square
to record the path (first pass: poke around the 4 directions;
as the mouse finds a non-wall, remember which of NESW
got the mouse out. Eventually it stumbles to the goal.
Second pass: just follow the recorded ways out.  Not
optimal, but no mistakes.)

But more on the topic of history: it turns out that the Bell Labs
library still does keep many things on microfiche and will
retrieve them, now by online request.  One that I just ordered
is an internal Technical Memorandum by Shannon, TM43-110-44
entitled 'Analogue of the Vernam System for Continuous Time Series'.
This is, I think, reprinted in the collection of his works in the
book edited by Sloane and Wyner, but it will be interesting to
see the original: "TM43-..." means that was written in 1943.
This work is probably related to the telephone communication system
used by Churchill and Roosevelt during WW2.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Syscall design in 1st Edition?
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 > Who was/were responsible for the choice of system calls for the PDP-7
 > version and the 1st Edition of UNIX? How was the choice made, what was
 > thrown out, etc etc. I'm still impressed how many of this original set of
 > system calls still exist, albeit in an evolved format.

Ken.  But the I/O scheme was sort of ancestral in that the open/close/read/write/seek
things were pretty much directly from Multics.  Of course the
basic idea of such operations was older, but the byte-buffer idea
was at least fairly fresh in Multics.  Its direct predecessor CTSS
was much more more block-oriented.

The place where real evolution (in system calls)  took place in the
PDP-7 system was with fork/exec.  This covered pretty well
in the Evolution paper on my homepage.  This was on the '7;
the other big early change (on transition to the PDP-11) was
the acquisition of file path names.  This is in the same paper as well.

 > Also, at least for 1st Edition, you chose to implement these as real
 > system calls (i.e with a SYS instruction, rather than a subroutine
 > call). Was this for a reason? The PDP-11/20 didn't have have a user/kernel
 > mode distinction, so again I'm impressed by the foresight. It's a pity
 > that the microcomputer OS designers didn't think so clearly.

Even on the PDP-7 system calls were done with some sort of
trap instruction, which I no longer remember.  The idea of having
a clear system vs user distinction (even if the hardware didn't help)
was another of the things that was absorbed, not only from Multics
but also from CTSS and (in Ken's case) presumably from the Berkeley
SDS 940 system.   These earlier systems did have a clear hardware
distinction, and even when our hardware didn't support it
nicely (particularly separation of address space), it seemed only
natural to do things this way--if for no other reason than that
it made it simpler to tweak and recompile the OS and the user
programs independently, with the system call numbers providing
the naming connection.

	Regards,
	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Warren--
	I've also been in contact with Greg P about other aspects
of his project.   I can't see any reason why you can't send
whatever versions of the licenses themselves you have--
except for your work & expense involved in dredging them up
and sending them.  SCO and AT&T and Lucent also seem to have
lost them, just as you say.  But I don't think they're sensitive material
now (nor were they then).

	Dennis





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Subject: Re: Ancient Unix licenses?
Date: Wed, 4 Apr 2001 21:39:05 -0400
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No, I don't have any early licenses either--if I did,
I'd send them (and I did try). But do as you think appropriate,
either because you're uncertain about the propriety,
or just because it's too much annoyance to dig them
up and find the best way to transmit them.  Greg has
also said that he's a bit overwhelmed by the amount
of other material that he's accumulated, and unless
he presses you about this specifically, he probably has
plenty to work with already.

I'm also curious about SCO->Caldera, but (just as in the
past) the problem at either place will be finding someone
who is at all interested in the issue.  This means that
getting any sort of permission will be hard, but it also
means that in fact the chances of any sort of problem
are vanishingly small.  Still, I sympathize with reluctance.

	Dennis


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@henry.cs.adfa.edu.au>
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Subject: Re: Ancient Unix licenses?
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In article by dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com:
> Warren--
> 	I've also been in contact with Greg P about other aspects
> of his project.   I can't see any reason why you can't send
> whatever versions of the licenses themselves you have--
> except for your work & expense involved in dredging them up
> and sending them.  SCO and AT&T and Lucent also seem to have
> lost them, just as you say.  But I don't think they're sensitive material
> now (nor were they then).
> 	Dennis

Ah, for protecting-my-butt legal reasons, I'd still prefer that we get
releases from the organisations concerned :-)

I'm still on tenterhooks waiting to find out what Caldera will do the
the Ancient UNIX IP once they finalise the transfer from SCO.

You (i.e you individually and/or Lucent) wouldn't have any really old
licenses lying around, e.g 4th Ed to 6th Ed?!

Cheers,
	Warren
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From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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For your amusement, here's what I got this afternoon from
him in the midst of a continuing conversation.  I'm concocting
the answer.

Abt a hand-written note, no, but I do have some old correspondence
asking about things.  We shall see.

---

From: gmp216@nyu.edu
Date: Wed Apr  4 16:40:55 EDT 2001
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: Re: ancient Unix question 

> The one you probably know about was the USL vs BSDI and
> shortly the regents of U California about trade secret and copyright
> issues, which did reach prelimination litigation in federal court,
> and was settled after Judge Debevoise made some rulings that
> didn't look good for USL. I still have much of the public paperwork
> (machine-readable) about this.

I have the documents that were posted to the BSDI ftp site
(ftp.bsdi.com/bsdi/info/usl). If you have anything that's not posted there, I'd
love to see it. Also, Kirk McKusick has sent me a box of documents which has
not arrived yet. The only thing I don't have that I'd really like to see is the
Memorandum for Record mentioned in footnote 2 of the March 30, 1993 court
ruling --

       n2 AT&T's policy of affixing copyright notice apparently began about
       July 16, 1984. AT&T's "Memorandum For Record" of that date, the
       document that implemented the policy, discusses issues that are
       characteristic of the initial implementation of a new policy. (Earhart
       Decl., Ex. A at P 4, 5.)

I suppose this is probably under seal.


Regarding the on-again/off-again copyright notices on the early Unix sources, I
have gotten the following story from Steve Johnson, and I thought you might
have some comments on it or some related stories to add:

        I believe at the time that
        copyrighting source code required that all the code be
        placed in the Library of Congress.  The lawyers first
        demanded that every fine, including data files for programs
        such as cron, be copyrighted.  In many cases, this required
        us to recognize a comment convention for the data in the
        file, which in turn required us to change the programs
        that read those data files.  This was a major pain.
        
        We had no sooner finished doing this than the lawyers
        reversed their stand, believing that the danger of putting
        the source code in the Library of Congress was greater
        than the danger of treating it as a trade secret with a
        licencing agreement.  They then required us to remove
        all the copyright notices.


The Version 7 Unix tape I have has this comment in /usr/doc/cman:

        Sorry, but for copyright reasons, the source
        for the C Reference Manual is not distributed.

Do you know if this has anything to do with the publication of the K&R book?


Finally, for some reason I'm really curious about wump.c... Is there a story
behind this? It looks like it was translated from BASIC into C from the first
1973 issue of the PCC newsletter, so I assume Bell Telephone Labs was
subscribed to that publication or someone picked up a copy on a trip to
California. Hunt the Wumpus shows up in various guises throughout this story
(it was actually one of the programs cloned for the BSD Net/2 distribution). Do
you know any details of its early history?


>        Regards and good luck, and if your project turns up
>         anything interesting, let me know!

Thanks a lot for your help! This project has turned out to be far more fruitful
than I thought when I started out, and I am basically drowning in interesting
material. I'll be sure to send you a draft when one is available.

---
Greg Pomerantz





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Here's what I last sent to Greg.  The putting-in and and subsequent
removal of the copyright notices happened well before 32V,
although 32V, as the primary source for BSD was presumably
most important in the lawsuit.

Saw your note to the usenix group asking to see any early
licenses.  As I said, I am quite sure that the licenses themselves
are not sensitive in any way, but I can understand that you want
to be careful with your materials.

	D.

 ----
From: dmr
Date: Wed Apr  4 22:36:43 EDT 2001
To: gmp216@nyu.edu dmr
Subject: Re: ancient Unix question 


The only USL-BSDI lawsuit material I have came from BSDI's site as well.  If you're
in contact with Kirk, he's a better source.

On the Memo for Record:  1984 was
when AT&T was just leaping into the commercialization,
and so they were presumably thinking more carefully
about the IP issues, and maybe there were changes in law or
regs.  The earlier advice about whether to incorporate copyright
notices mentioned by Johnson occurred well before this.

Incidentally, I spent a lot of time with the USL folks
before the suit trying to work out some sort of
compromise, though to no avail.  At least I
managed to keep the trust of both sides.

Steve Johnson's story about the copyright notices is in accordance
with my memory, although I don't remember the LOC
specifically.  There was a brief period when the lawyers
decided that copyright and trade secret were incompatible,
and they'd rather go with the latter.  Whether or not
this was true or they were mistaken in their belief as of
then-current law, I know not.

This  probably happened between the 4th and 5th
edition.  One of the reasons for doing the 5th so
close to the 4th was that the 4th (I think) had the notices;
the 5th was done partly to take them out.  We
wrote to the holders of the 4th and offered a
free upgrade to people who would send back
the older tape.

[The first draft of this paragraph said "5th and 6th"
editions.  In checking the dates, 4th and 5th is much
more likely to be accurate:  4th was Nov 1973, 5th was
June, 1974.  6th was May, 1975.    We don't have
the sources for the 4th ed, so I can't verify the
existence of included copyright notices in its code.
We do have the 5th and 6th sources, and they definitely
lack them.  This is to some extent a reconstruction,
but there was definitely a flip-flop in advice, as Johnson
remembers.]

[Another side note: although I don't have text of the
licenses to prove it, there was a definite change between
the 6th and 7th licenses about University teaching.
John Lions wrote his "Commentary" book about the 6th
and this was regarded with mixed reaction from the
growing business group.  More about this if you need it.]

About  C manual: yes.  K&R 1 and the 7th edition were
more or less the same time, and Brian and I wanted
to sell more books.  I don't think we even consulted
with Prentice-Hall, we just decided not to distribute
what amounted to a chunk of the book.

The wumpus game was indeed from PCC, I believe,
though there were other versions.  I think we did
have a subscription, or maybe just Ken did.  He wrote the C
(maybe even B) translation for his son, who was
just at the right age at the time.

You'll have to wheedle Toomey about seeing the early licenses
themselves.  I didn't save them, and at some point a bit
ago I tried to find an appropriate archive in the company,
but this bit of history seems to have been lost locally.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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I am writing to let you know that a very preliminary draft of my Unix legal
history paper is available. If you are interested, you can grab a copy at the
URLs listed below. This is not a public distribution, so let me know if you'd
like to share this with anyone.

This stuff is a very preliminary state. Only the ancient history and some legal
background is really written down, with almost all of the actual Unix and free
software material is still in outline form. So in other words its probably not
particularly interesting to anyone right now, but it costs me nothing to share
it, so here it goes...

troff sources -- http://home.nyu.edu/~gmp216/b-0.1/b-0.1.tar.gz
dvi           -- http://home.nyu.edu/~gmp216/b-0.1/b.dvi
postscript    -- http://home.nyu.edu/~gmp216/b-0.1/b.ps

---
Greg Pomerantz





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Turns out I have the required  uid and passwd already saved up,
but I looked again at your decoded treasures.   Probably only
some bits of the s1 tape are actually interesting, but there are
some stories.

E.g. the init.s in s1/frag2 has reference to "melda" and other
strings with "mel" -- this is Michael E. Lesk, and "da" is
directory assistance.  He wrote an early program to do name
lookup from a touch-tone phone.   It used a mechanical-optical
voice generator to read back the number (much like traditional
film sound techniques).  Later, in the lab, we got a real AT&T
Picturephone (very low-res TV phone) which actually could
connect over the building phone network to (and between)
executives.   There was a large box of hardware that could render
text (expensive CGA -> Picturephone video), so from
our Picturephone we could call the local number, key in a name,
and see the names and numbers on the screen.

There was also a Picturephone link to the Holmdel site of
the Labs, about an hour south, which had a TV camera in
a videoconf-demo room.  It could be pointed and zoomed by
Touchtone keying.  We sometimes watched the Watergate
senate hearings by pointing the camera at a regular TV screen
left on in the Holmdel room.

But in some ways, the interesting part of this particular fragment
is that /usr/mel/da was hard-coded in init.s.  Live and learn.

And also, your note reminded me to repatriate the 3rd and 4th manuals for
storage here as well.  Even though I seem to have helped
supply them, local digital versions aren't conveniently at hand.
Redundancy is good.

	Regards,
	Dennis


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Subject: s1 DECtape fragments
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Dennis,
	Those fragments of files that I was able to extract from the
s1 DECtape you have. I've modified my source code comparator at
http://minnie.tuhs.org/UnixTree
so that you can now compare the actual differences between files.

So for example, by clicking on the Search button on
http://minnie.tuhs.org/UnixTree/1972_stuff/s1/frag0.html

I can see that this fragment was a part of ed3.s, and I can compare
the fragment to the 5th Edition version of ed3.s

The web server isn't intelligent to know that you wrote all this source,
so you can use au2000 and rmq7hle for authentication.

Cheers,
	Warren
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From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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 > Dennis, this just came up on one of the old Unix mailing lists. What is the
 > answer?

/etc is (was) just the obvious et cetera--things that had to be around
(some executables like init, other data sources like passwd).
A pot to put things in.

More interesting as a name was /crp, which survived less well.
It stood ambivalently for "crap" and "creep" as a name for
a disk partition on which to place big temporary things, and
 home directories of various guests.  Not backed-up well.

 > I've just switched jobs and now lecture at a university in southern Queensland,
 > the weather is much nicer than down in Canberra.

I'd noticed your change, what with the establishment of tuhs.org and
maybe some earlier mail.  Best fortune in the new position.
Actually, every time I've been to either Canberra or Qld the
weather has been wonderful, but I've evidently timed my visits carefully.

	Regards,
	Dennis





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To: wkt@tuhs.org, norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca
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To recapitulate the situation:

The 8th edition material does exist in coherent form from
tapes, and I have it: two tapes in tar format.  It's clean
in that it has virtually nothing from outside.  The only
issue would be whether Caldera can be induced to
think about it.  I don't see a problem with compressing
it and making it available to you.

There are two parts: one is the main system and its
software (34MB uncompressed) and the jerq/blit
material (18MB).   I could compress it and make it
available to you.

9th, 10th stuff is not sorted out.  Norman collected some
sort of snapshot circa the 10th edition manual, but
we don't have it in coherent form; it never was a distribution
as such.

I do have the contents of much of the source, but as Norman observes,
there is a lot in what we've both got that would have
to be gone through.  (bowell.src.fs weighs in at 369MB).

	Dennis


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@minnie.tuhs.org>
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Subject: Re: MicroVAX 10th edition? (fwd)
To: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
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Dennis,
	I'm trying to persuade Norman to let me take an off-site archive
of his 10th Edition setup, just so that we have a preserve of bits now,
pending any developments on the legal front. He's amenable, but he also
asked if I had contacted you about the 8th Edition tapes. Could I do the
same with any 8th or 9th Edition tapes that you have? I am already sitting
on a pile of sensitive things which I promise never to release until
it's legally feasible.

Thanks,
	Warren

----- Forwarded message from Norman Wilson -----
From: Norman Wilson <norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca>
To: wkt@tuhs.org
Subject: Re: MicroVAX 10th edition?
Date: Thu,  6 Dec 2001 12:07:49 -0500

Good point re off-site backups of the original snapshot.  There
is some cleanup that had better be done even of that to remove
third-party licensed stuff that happened to be kept in /usr/src,
e.g. there is an old copy of Matlab and probably one of
Macsyma; none of it has anything to do with UNIX anyway.
But that (possibly plus spinning an old tape to make sure I am
starting from a pristine and complete snapshot) shouldn't take
more than an afternoon to do once I'm back home, and now
is probably the best time in ages for me to get around to it.

I propose that you nag me about it in about Monday week or
thereabouts, by which time it will likely be possible for me
just to sit down and do it.

I wish I had a copy of the V8 tape handy too.  Have you asked
Dennis about that?  There's a small chance that I can find one
elsewhere in Toronto (the guy who would know now lives in
Oakland CA, and in fact is here at LISA), but only a small
chance.  I'll try to remembere to poke him tomorrow.
----- End of forwarded message from Norman Wilson -----
--upas-aechuugiurbnllrxyfnedakhuv--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Norman Wilson <norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca>
To: wkt@tuhs.org, dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: Re: MicroVAX 10th edition? (fwd)
Date: Mon, 10 Dec 2001 11:02:32 -0500
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There actually was a sort of V9 tape that I was reminded of
a few days ago because I encountered Geoff Collyer at LISA:
the V9-for-Sun tape done by someone in a neighboring group,
not 1127.  (The number 1122 and the name Dave Kapilow come
to mind, but the memories are faint.)  Geoff got a copy of that
during his later days at U of T; he thinks he knows where there
is still a copy.  I plan to follow that lead when I'm back in town
(in a week), both because it seems worth preserving and
because I am now curious to see just what was on it. I am
pretty sure it was done just prior to the big device driver reorg
that inspired me to change the system to print `9Vr2' at boot
time (partly as a tactic to nudge others into doing an honest
10/e manual; it worked, though I don't take full credit by any
means).

My snapshot was taken somewhat after the manual was issued,
but the system didn't change much.  I do still have a copy of
the pristine snapshot (sans all the changes I've made to the
system since); I don't think it would be too hard to expunge the
outside bits, though I can now state fairly confidently that parts
of /usr/src/cmd just won't compile or won't work after they have
been compiled even after pruning.  But if we want to preserve
history complete with warts (and I want to do that), there it is.






From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@tuhs.org
Subject: Re: Merry Xmas + a request
Date: Fri, 28 Dec 2001 22:09:51 -0500
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Done.  Just returned from a fine north-of-England Xmas.
Happy New Year!

	Dennis


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Subject: Merry Xmas + a request
To: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Sun, 23 Dec 2001 22:46:18 +1100 (EST)
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Hi Dennis,

	Hope you & family have a Merry Xmas. I'll get back to Norman
in the new year w.r.t taking a snapshot of his 8/9/10 Ed stuff.

On your http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/who/dmr pages, can you

	s/minnie.cs.adfa.edu.au/minnie.tuhs.org/g

and
	s/ADFA/Bond University/g

Many thanks!
	Warren
--upas-oqrtxogyrjejpgasvuohblryvc--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject; Re: Liberal license for ancient UNIX sources

[resent: Dion Johnson used "wht@minnie.tuhs.org" for your
address, and my reply/CC did too.  I trust he has repaired
his version and you heard from him.   -- D.]

From: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
To: dionj@caldera.com
CC: wht@minnie.tuhs.org
Subject: Re: Liberal license for ancient UNIX sources
Date: Wed, 23 Jan 2002 21:19:08 -0500

Thanks for pushing at this.  I've worked at the same
sort of thing several times (with SCO,  Novell before
them, not to mention USL).  It's a hard push, just because
although no one genuinely thinks that visibility of the
early code represents a real threat to the product, in the
sense of competing with current offerings, they also envision indirect
threats (this was a precursor to some part of our product;
if this material is freely available, could this somehow affect
our own licensing situation?)

In truth, and probably more important, given that the material is
old, both the lawyers and decision-makers are measuring
their time in even thinking about the issue ("Why should I spend
a moment investigating this?")
 
A good step.  It will simplify and clarify access to the material
(especially if Warren can spare some of his own time), and
also stake out Caldera's claim in it.

	Regards and thanks,
	Dennis Ritchie





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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You will no doubt have noted that the Caldera announcement
was front-paged on ./ . Trust you're withstanding
the effects.

	D.





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Can I borrow your words?
Date: Tue, 5 Feb 2002 00:08:36 -0500
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No problem with including the introduction to the
compilers.

I noticed that you took out the part referring to
successful recompilation under a simulator--OK by
me, but knowing that this was possible was, I thought,
interesting.  Your call.

I seem to have made a tiny tweak or two in the meantime.
In particular I fixed "own their latest" to "their own latest".

	Rgds,
	Dennis


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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@minnie.tuhs.org>
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Subject: Can I borrow your words?
To: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
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Dennis, can I borrow some of your words on the Early C compilers? With the
new Caldera license, I can now allow free access to my browsable tree of
Unix source code at: http://minnie.tuhs.org/UnixTree/

Yesterday I unpacked the Early C compilers and added them to the tree
at http://minnie.tuhs.org/UnixTree/EarlyC. I grabbed your description
of them, but I want to make sure it's ok before I advertise it.

Thanks again,
	Warren
--upas-zpdvfsrhwmcavyibqysmujnkpk--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@tuhs.org
Subject: Re: [pups] bringing up the fist C compiler
From: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Fri, 6 Sep 2002 16:05:16 -0400
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NB is there in the paper.  This was all on the 11.
The "and later C (via B) on the -11" in the latter should have
said NB.

I'm not absolutely positive whether I started
converting the interpreter to a compiler during
the NB period or only once C existed.  I believe
the latter.

The thing you're thinking about with Ken
is also in the paper.  (adding ++, +=, etc.)
I see it also mentions the GE/Honeywell
compiler.  B itself didn't have a compiler
to the -7 or -11.

	Dennis

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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@minnie.tuhs.org>
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Subject: Re: [pups] bringing up the fist C compiler
In-Reply-To: <dcb7f8efb847f0ed61ba6071070b13f1@plan9.bell-labs.com> from Dennis
 Ritchie at "Sep 6, 2002 01:35:26 am"
To: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Fri, 6 Sep 2002 18:14:51 +1000 (EST)
CC: PDP-11 Unix Preservation Society <pups@tuhs.org>
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In article by Dennis Ritchie:
> The chist paper on my home page is pretty complete (if telegraphic)
> about bootstrapping B on the PDP-7 and later C (via B) on the -11.

The chist paper doesn't mention NB, which was the missing link between
B and C. I seem to recall a story where there was an NB interpreter
and also a compiler, and Ken kept adding functionality to one which
made it slower, and this had a knock-on effect. Sorry, that's all I
can dredge out of my wetware bit store. Was this in `A Quarter Century
of UNIX' by Peter Salus? Are there any other paper/web references to NB?

	Warren
--upas-jkwixzleelnjqqqalfyepxqwxw--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: festoon
From: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Wed, 26 Feb 2003 16:10:05 -0500
To: wkt@minnie.tuhs.org
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Attached is a bundle with festoon
and its man page.  Feel free to stash
it in the archives if there's a place
for it.

	Dennis
--upas-fxmifxlopjmbqdhuivdgtyidjv
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# To unbundle, sh this file
echo festoon.6 1>&2
sed 's/.//' >festoon.6 <<'//GO.SYSIN DD festoon.6'
-.TH FESTOON 6
-.CT 1 games
-.SH NAME
-festoon \- memo writer
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B festoon
-[-p] [-e] [-t] [-sseed] [-z] [length] [percent]
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.I Festoon
-prepares a memorandum on any undesired topic, containing
-.I length
-sentences (default is 20) and a specified
-.I percent
-of manufactured nouns (default is 5), suitable for input to
-.IR troff (1).
-Options
-.B "\-p \-e \-t"
-(which may be concatenated as
-.B \-pet )
-create pointless pictures, nonsensical equations and
-useless tables, respectively.
-.P
-.B \-s
-can be used to force the random number generator seed,
-which is printed out as the organization number in the header
-and which is normally assigned randomly.
-Re-use of the same seed results in the same memo.
-.P
-.B \-z
-is a debugging aid; it inserts the grammar type of
-each sentence fragment in the output stream.
-.P
-.I Festoon
-is a useful way to test the commands in the "SEE ALSO" section.
-A total effect might radically monoarchate this qualitativeness.
-.SH SEE ALSO
-.IR troff (1),
-.IR eqn (1),
-.IR pic (1),
-.IR tbl (1).
//GO.SYSIN DD festoon.6
echo fest.c 1>&2
sed 's/.//' >fest.c <<'//GO.SYSIN DD fest.c'
-/* %W%	 */
-#include <stdio.h>
-#define R rand()&32767
-#define T 0.125
-#define CHOOSE(x) (x[(R)%(sizeof x / sizeof x[0])])
-#define EQ(a,b) (strcmp(a,b)==0)
-#define LAST(x) (x[strlen(x)-1])
-#define VOWEL(x) (x=='a'||x=='e'||x=='i'||x=='o'||x=='u')
-#define N 8
-typedef struct xyz {
-	char           *type;
-	union {
-		struct xyz     *x[N];
-		char           *s[N];
-	}               list;
-}              *X, XX;
-typedef struct {
-	char           *number, *ending, *tense, *an, *unspec, *passive;
-}              *E, EE;
-
-X       getxx(), verbal(), comp(), advp(), adjph(), adverb(),
-	adjective(), prep(), vprep(), equation(), np(), aux(), vp(), art(),
-	modal(), perf(), prog(), nounal(), sent(), comma(), adjval();
-
-char           *tense(), *number(), *prefix(), *root();
-char            buff[1000];
-int             io;
-int             flag;
-int		eqn=0, tbl=0, pic=0;
-double          makeup = -1.;
-
-X 
-nomq(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-nomq";
-	if (EQ(env->number, "sing")) {
-		if (EQ(tense(), "past"))
-			v->list.s[0] = "there was";
-		else
-			v->list.s[0] = "there is";
-	} else {
-		if (EQ(tense(), "past"))
-			v->list.s[0] = "there were";
-		else
-			v->list.s[0] = "there are";
-	}
-	if (prob(0.2))
-		v->list.s[1] = " not";
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-rel(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *c[] = {"that", "which"};
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-rel";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(c);
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-sent(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               sentv = getxx();
-	sentv->type = "sent";
-	if (prob(0.09)) {
-		env->unspec = "";
-		sentv->list.x[1] = np(env);
-		sentv->list.x[3] = aux(env);
-		sentv->list.x[4] = vp(env);
-		sentv->list.x[0] = nomq(env);
-		sentv->list.x[2] = rel(env);
-		return sentv;
-	}
-	sentv->list.x[0] = np(env);
-	sentv->list.x[1] = aux(env);
-	sentv->list.x[2] = vp(env);
-	return sentv;
-}
-
-X 
-nomy(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-nomq";
-	v->list.s[0] = "the fact that";
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-np(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               npv = getxx();
-	EE              nenv;
-	static EE       empty;
-	npv->type = "np";
-	if (prob(0.025)) {
-		nenv = empty;
-		npv->list.x[0] = nomy(&nenv);
-		npv->list.x[1] = sent(&nenv);
-		if (env->number == 0)
-			env->number = "sing";
-		return npv;
-	}
-	npv->list.x[1] = nounal(env);
-	npv->list.x[0] = art(env);
-	return npv;
-}
-
-X 
-aux(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               auxv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	auxv->type = "aux";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (prob(0.25))
-		auxv->list.x[i++] = modal(env);
-	if (prob(0.25))
-		auxv->list.x[i++] = perf(env);
-	if (prob(0.25))
-		auxv->list.x[i++] = prog(env);
-	return auxv;
-}
-
-X 
-passive(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-passive";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (EQ(env->ending, "modal"))
-		v->list.s[0] = "be";
-	else if (EQ(env->ending, "-en"))
-		v->list.s[0] = "been";
-	else if (EQ(env->ending, "-ing"))
-		v->list.s[0] = "being";
-	else {
-		if (EQ(env->tense, "past"))
-			v->list.s[0] = EQ(env->number, "sing") ? "was" : "were";
-		else
-			v->list.s[0] = EQ(env->number, "sing") ? "is" : "are";
-	}
-	env->passive = env->ending = "pass";
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-passprep(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-passprep";
-	v->list.s[0] = "by";
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-vp(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               vpv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	vpv->type = "vp";
-	if (prob(0.5))
-		vpv->list.x[i++] = passive(env);
-	vpv->list.x[i++] = verbal(env);
-	vpv->list.x[i++] = comp(env);
-	if (prob(0.10))
-		vpv->list.x[i++] = advp(env);
-	return vpv;
-}
-
-X 
-art(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *aspecsg[] = {"the", "the", "the", "the", "the", "this", "this", "that"};
-	static char    *aspecpl[] = {"the", "the", "the", "the", "the", "these", "those"};
-	static char    *aunssg[] = {"a", "a", "a", "a", "a", "a", "a", "much", "each", "any"};
-	static char    *aunspl[] = {"some", "a few", "a couple", "several", "many", "all",
-		"no",
-		"an undue number of",
-	"a number of"};
-	X               artv = getxx();
-	artv->type = "-art";
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (env->unspec == 0 && prob(0.33)) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			artv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(aspecsg);
-		else
-			artv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(aspecpl);
-	} else if (prob(0.50) || env->an && EQ(env->number, "sing")) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			artv->list.s[0] = env->an ? "a" : CHOOSE(aunssg);
-		else
-			artv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(aunspl);
-		if (env->an && EQ(artv->list.s[0], "all"))
-			artv->list.s[0] = "";
-	} else
-		artv->list.s[0] = "";
-	env->unspec = 0;
-	if (env->an && EQ(env->an, "an") && EQ(artv->list.s[0], "a"))
-		artv->list.s[0] = "an";
-	env->an = 0;
-	return artv;
-}
-
-X 
-modal(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *pres[] = {"can", "may", "must", "shall", "will"};
-	static char    *past[] = {"could", "might", "should", "would"};
-	X               modalv = getxx();
-	modalv->type = "-modal";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (EQ(env->ending, "pres"))
-		modalv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(pres);
-	else
-		modalv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(past);
-	env->ending = "modal";
-	return modalv;
-}
-
-X 
-perf(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               perfv = getxx();
-	perfv->type = "-perf";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (EQ(env->ending, "past")) {
-		perfv->list.s[0] = "had";
-	} else if (EQ(env->ending, "pres")) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			perfv->list.s[0] = "had";
-		else
-			perfv->list.s[0] = "have";
-	} else
-		perfv->list.s[0] = "have";
-	env->ending = "-en";
-	return perfv;
-}
-
-X 
-prog(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               progv = getxx();
-	progv->type = "-prog";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (EQ(env->ending, "pres")) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			progv->list.s[0] = "is";
-		else
-			progv->list.s[0] = "are";
-	} else if (EQ(env->ending, "past")) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			progv->list.s[0] = "was";
-		else
-			progv->list.s[0] = "were";
-	} else if (EQ(env->ending, "-en")) {
-		progv->list.s[0] = "been";
-	} else if (EQ(env->ending, "modal")) {
-		progv->list.s[0] = "be";
-	}
-	env->ending = "-ing";
-	return progv;
-}
-
-X 
-verb(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	/* they pres, he pres, they past, they perf, they prog, they pass */
-	static char    *ends[][6] = {{"ate", "ates", "ated", "ated", "ating", "ated"},
-	{"en", "ens", "ened", "ened", "ening", "ened"},
-	{"esce", "esces", "esced", "esced", "escing", "esced"},
-	{"fy", "fies", "fied", "fied", "fying", "fied"},
-	{"ize", "izes", "ized", "ized", "izing", "ized"}};
-	X               verbv = getxx();
-	int             i;
-	verbv->type = "-verb";
-	if (env->tense == 0)
-		env->tense = env->ending = tense();
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (0 && prob(0.1) && EQ(env->tense, env->ending)) {
-		if (EQ(env->number, "sing")) {
-			if (EQ(env->tense, "pres"))
-				verbv->list.s[0] = "is";
-			else
-				verbv->list.s[0] = "was";
-		} else {
-			if (EQ(env->tense, "pres"))
-				verbv->list.s[0] = "are";
-			else
-				verbv->list.s[0] = "were";
-		}
-	} else {
-		verbv->list.s[0] = prefix(env);
-		verbv->list.s[1] = root(env);
-		if (EQ(env->ending, "pres") && EQ(env->number, "sing"))
-			i = 1;
-		else if (EQ(env->ending, "pres") || EQ(env->ending, "modal"))
-			i = 0;
-		else if (EQ(env->ending, "past"))
-			i = 2;
-		else if (EQ(env->ending, "-en"))
-			i = 3;
-		else if (EQ(env->ending, "-ing"))
-			i = 4;
-		else if (EQ(env->ending, "pass"))
-			i = 5;
-		else
-			i = 0;
-		verbv->list.s[2] = ends[R % (sizeof ends / sizeof *ends)][i];
-	}
-	env->ending = 0;
-	return verbv;
-}
-
-static char    *nounlist[] = {"final completion",
-	"final ending", "final outcome",
-	"adaptation", "appearance", "argument", "circumstance",
-	"confession", "confidence", "delimitation", "dilution",
-	"dissertation", "distribution", "duplication",
-	"entertainment", "equipment", "evolution",
-	"existence", "expression", "generation", "impression",
-	"integration", "interaction", "investment", "judgment",
-	"population", "provision", "solution", "statement",
-	"tradition", "transmission",
-	"final result", "added increment", "assistance",
-	"beneficial assistance", "mutual cooperation",
-	"projection", "future projection",
-	"capability", "conjecture", "consensus of opinion",
-	"general consensus", "absence", "deficiency",
-	"inadequacy", "insufficience", "insufficiency",
-	"growing importance", "renewed emphasis",
-	"renewed interest", "changing behavior",
-	"critical thinking", "careful thinking",
-	"comprehensive survey", "high standard",
-	"basic foundation", "system testing",
-	"serious discussion", "serious concern",
-	"organizational framework", "prototype model",
-	"uniform nomenclature", "greater cooperation",
-	"uniform consistency", "early expectation",
-	"standardization", "great similarity",
-	"shortage", "presence", "sufficiency",
-	"consequent result", "construct", "disutility",
-	"early beginning", "emotional feeling", "endeavor",
-	"authorization", "order of magnitude", "preference",
-	"impact", "joint cooperation", "joint partnership",
-	"main essential", "methodology", "modification",
-	"necessary requisite", "past history", "situation",
-	"effectuation", "clarification", "new doubt",
-	"policy", "encouragement", "preparation",
-	"criterion", "material", "interest", "acceptance",
-	"rejection", "publication", "circulation",
-	"protection", "insurance",
-	"assignment", "identification",
-	"submission", "request",
-	"guidance", "correspondence", "inclusion",
-	"attachment", "assumption",
-	"recommendation", "prescription", "approval",
-	"discretion", "responsibility", "relevance",
-	"issuance", "termination", "total effect",
-	"deleterious effect", "consolidation",
-	"aggregation", "definiteness", "commencement",
-	"actual experience", "experience",
-	"combination", "accord", "filing",
-	"idea", "abstraction", "method", "procedure",
-	"complaint", "maintenance", "finance", "travel",
-	"purchase", "repair", "routine",
-	"development", "cancellation",
-	"partitioning", "development effort",
-	"project", "automation", "multilevel architecture",
-	"multilevel heirarchy", "data stream",
-	"objective",
-	"individual assignment", "mode of operation",
-	"clear community", "attendant interest",
-	"task division", "well defined interfacing",
-	"team report", "meeting time", "effective use",
-	"friction",
-	"major objective", "ownership",
-	"overall project time constraint",
-	"functional division", "requirements analysis",
-	"code development", "charter",
-	"requirements definition", "vertical division",
-	"broad range", "strong feeling",
-	"considerable latitude", "overall project constraint",
-	"sufficient resource", "assigned task", "expectation",
-	"critical aspect", "clear understanding",
-	"computing load", "clean interfacing", "natural basis",
-	"team activity", "team responsibility",
-	"main function", "predominant portion",
-	"work plan", "major breakpoint", "work module",
-	"achievable accuracy", "supplementary work",
-	"field version", "internal establishment",
-	"internal communication", "development progress",
-	"internal meeting", "experience level",
-	"high level autonomy", "adherence",
-	"feasibility demonstration", "persistent problem",
-	"internal objective", "idea sharing",
-	"improved performance", "unfamiliar methodology",
-	"new methodology", "development experience",
-	"module specification", "good progress",
-	"optimal number", "natural division",
-	"good relationship", "cross attendance",
-	"attendance", "necessary communication",
-	"evolving organization", "basic principle",
-	"complete revision", "general information",
-	"primary objective", "load-carrying capacity",
-	"necessary revision", "major change",
-	"clarified interpretation", "subsequent attempt",
-	"basic objective", "full utilization",
-	"practical consideration",
-	"proportionate quantity", "substantial change",
-	"database design", "unified framework",
-	"customer service", "strong interest",
-	"unified description", "necessary background information",
-	"provisioning", "physical coverage", "general observation",
-	"new technology", "validity determination",
-	"relation", "regulation", "verification",
-	"impediment", "portal", "practice", "premise",
-	"basis", "movement", "question",
-	"issue", "input", "output", "observation",
-	"input", "output", "input", "output",
-	"mechanization", "function", "evaluation",
-	"result", "further consideration", "category",
-	"performance indicator", "early warning",
-	"analysis purpose", "measurement", "replacement",
-	"utilitarian purpose",
-	"quota", "proposed enhancement", "enhancement",
-	"interfacing", "team organization", "module",
-	"guideline", "continuing study",
-	"required assistance", "major advance",
-	"proposal", "hierarchy",
-	"current view", "refinement", "activity",
-	"external description", "tight schedule pressure",
-	"internal conflict", "internal issue",
-	"reasonable compromise", "next phase",
-	"goal", "time constraint", "constraint",
-	"outcome", "important outcome",
-	"considerable experience", "intelligent choice",
-	"deliverable documentation", "discussion",
-	"timely delivery", "design issue", "large quantity",
-	"general environment", "protocol",
-	"transitioning", "modeling",
-	"considerable difficulty", "abstract interfacing",
-	"data structure", "consideration", "difficulty",
-	"statistical accuracy",
-	"agenda", "technique", "reordering",
-	"reauthorization", "current proposal",
-	"significant change", "criteria", "validation",
-	"validity",
-	"terminology", "current understanding",
-	"incorporation", "staffing impact",
-	"schedule impact", "cost tradeoff",
-	"system architecture",
-	"adequate capacity", "centralization",
-	"current task", "system deployment",
-	"attendant uncertainty", "process",
-	"potential usefulness", "proposed method",
-	"basic assumption", "anomaly",
-	"available data", "potential improvement",
-	"registration", "exemption", "exception",
-	"follow-up", "service",
-	"installation", "construction", "necessity",
-	"occasion", "instrumentation", "disposal",
-	"attractiveness",
-	"convenience", "sponsoring",
-	"signification", "meaningfulness",
-	"significantness", "individuality",
-	"specification", "determination", "affirmation",
-	"recruitment", "supervision", "management",
-	"oversight", "overview", "environment",
-	"effectation", "circumvention", "location",
-	"execution", "effectiveness", "consciousness",
-	"notation", "confirmation", "restriction",
-	"organization", "realization", "actification",
-	"activation", "reification", "beginning", "conclusion",
-	"ending", "finishing", "teamwork", "motivation",
-	"attitude", "good attitude",
-	"progress", "milestone", "deadline", "schedule",
-	"allocation", "resource", "command", "concern",
-	"time", "time frame", "reality",
-	"behaviour", "ability", "advent", "increment",
-	"opportunity", "accomplishment", "aggregate",
-	"analysis", "totality", "matter",
-	"date", "duration", "centrality",
-	"proximity", "collection", "elimintaion",
-	"investigation", "opinion", "debate",
-	"decision", "benefit", "difference", "discontinuity",
-	"fabrication", "plan", "chart", "forecast",
-	"simplicity", "simplification", "maximization",
-	"minimization", "direction",
-	"agreement",
-	"amount", "quantity", "quality", "essence",
-	"description", "violation", "purpose",
-	"primary purpose", "automatic control", "redefinition",
-	"uniform emphasis", "study activity", "work activity",
-	"concept stage", "concept activity",
-	"possible potential", "summarization", "system function",
-	"rationale", "significant enhancement", "diverse need",
-	"diverse organization", "comprehensive plan", "interim",
-	"functional overview", "system configuration",
-	"configuration", "failure", "quantitative result",
-	"major obstacle", "conception",
-	"effectiveness", "final evaluation",
-	"interrelationship", "functional requirement",
-	"system philosophy", "verbal interchange",
-	"perceived inadequacy", "primary emphasis",
-	"intermingling", "cooperation", "partnership",
-	"adjustment", "application", "implementation",
-	"contact", "mention", "power",
-	"nature", "invention", "importance",
-	"ground", "reason", "permission", "size",
-	"report", "documentation", "priority",
-	"pursuance", "recurrance", "resumption",
-	"presupposition", "continuance",
-	"substantiation", "success", "action", "truth",
-	"past experience", "greater acceptability",
-	"organizational structure", "clear distinction",
-	"clear definition",
-	"significant use", "unmet need", "centralized organization",
-	"vague concept", "negative impact", "detrimental effect",
-	"modularization", "submodularization",
-	"effect", "consistancy",
-	"inconsistancy", "completion", "utilization",
-	"reference", "doubt", "evidence",
-	"viewpoint",
-	"actual fact",
-	"true fact", "underlying purpose", "viable alternative"};
-
-static char    *adjlist[] = {"concrete", "abstract", "procedural",
-	"real", "ideal", "functional", "prototype",
-	"effective", "capable", "incremental",
-	"perceived", "associated", "interdepartmental",
-	"diverse", "characteristic", "worst-case",
-	"qualitative", "fully automatic", "candidate",
-	"consensual", "consequential", "conjectural",
-	"constructive", "initial", "cooperative",
-	"essential", "methodological", "requisite",
-	"historical", "situational", "political",
-	"prepared", "material", "defined", "well defined",
-	"organizational", "projected", "overall",
-	"accepted", "rejected", "corresponding",
-	"committed", "environmental", "typical", "working", "timely",
-	"growing", "unprecedented", "new", "renewed", "fresh",
-	"rapid", "changing", "careful", "comprehensive", "broad",
-	"massive", "huge", "enormous",
-	"evaluated", "discresionary",
-	"durable", "beneficial",
-	"maximal", "tremendous", "minimal",
-	"on-site", "standardized", "standard",
-	"powerful", "natural", "necessary",
-	"reasonable", "successful",
-	"doubtful", "dubious", "certain",
-	"unified", "different", "similar", "utilitarian",
-	"realizable", "organizable", "motivated",
-	"topical", "valuable", "feasible",
-	"intelligent", "deliverable", "nontrivial",
-	"worthwhile", "complicated",
-	"organized", "organizing", "progressing",
-	"schedulable", "resourceful", "commanding",
-	"important", "allocatable", "temporal",
-	"ponderable", "understandable", "comprehendable",
-	"past", "present", "future",
-	"obvious", "considerable", "finished", "completed",
-	"unique", "abovementioned",
-	"major", "minor", "tendentious", "activating",
-	"actual", "added", "adequate", "affordable",
-	"analyzable", "additional", "intuitive",
-	"artificial", "good", "better",
-	"worse", "bad", "basic", "fundamental", "brief",
-	"general", "very unique", "extreme", "most unique",
-	"central", "proximate", "approximate", "collected",
-	"conductable", "comtemplatable",
-	"continuing", "demonstrable", "desirable",
-	"correctable", "foreseeable",
-	"discontinued", "early", "beginning",
-	"effectuated", "elucidated", "emotional",
-	"enclosed", "enthused", "entire", "exact",
-	"experimental", "fearful", "final",
-	"following", "informative",
-	"full", "complete", "indicated", "authorized",
-	"modularized", "submodularized",
-	"particular", "preferred", "satisfactory",
-	"measurable", "referenced", "literal",
-	"modified",
-	"correct", "prioritized", "prolonged",
-	"regrettable", "apparent",
-	"continued", "subsequent", "sufficient",
-	"suggestive", "true", "ultimate", "separate",
-	"purposeful", "regarded", "resulting",
-	"doubtful", "evident", "interesting", "worthy",
-	"uniform", "vital", "viable",
-	"worthwhile", "alternative",
-	"sophisticated", "employed",
-	"clear", "lucid", "simple", "perspicuous",
-	"incomplete", "concerned"};
-
-X 
-noun(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *suff[] = {"ion", "sion", "tion", "age",
-		"ness", "ment", "ure",
-		"ity", "iety", "ty", "ence", "ency", "ance",
-		"ancy", "tude", "hood", "ture", "ate", "art", "ard",
-		"ism", "ine", "stress", "trix", "ess",
-		"dom", "ship", "eer", "ster", "ant", "ent", "ary",
-		"ery", "ory", "ette", "let", "ling", "ule", "kin",
-		"ar", "or", "ist", "fulness",
-		"kin", "cule", "icle", "y", "ability", "iosos"};
-	X               nounv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	nounv->type = "-noun";
-	if (env->number == 0)
-		env->number = number();
-	if (prob(makeup)) {
-		if (prob(0.05)) {
-			nounv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(adjlist);
-			nounv->list.s[i++] = "ness";
-		} else
-			nounv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(nounlist);
-	} else {
-		nounv->list.s[i++] = prefix(env);
-		nounv->list.s[i++] = root(env);
-		nounv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(suff);
-	}
-	if (EQ(env->number, "plural")) {
-		if (LAST(nounv->list.s[i - 1]) == 's')
-			nounv->list.s[i] = "es";
-		else if (LAST(nounv->list.s[i - 1]) == 'y')
-			nounv->list.s[i] = "ies";
-		else
-			nounv->list.s[i] = "s";
-	}
-	return nounv;
-}
-
-X 
-nounal(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               nounalv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	X               p;
-	nounalv->type = "nounal";
-	if (prob(0.15)) {
-		nounalv->list.x[i++] = adjval(env);
-	}
-	nounalv->list.x[i++] = noun(env);
-	if (prob(0.15)) {
-		nounalv->list.x[i++] = adjph(env);
-	}
-	env->an = "a";
-	for (p = nounalv; p->type[0] != '-'; p = p->list.x[0]);
-	for (i = 0; p->list.s[i]; i++) {
-		if (p->list.s[i][0] == 0)
-			continue;
-		if (VOWEL(p->list.s[i][0])) {
-			env->an = "an";
-		}
-		break;
-	}
-	return nounalv;
-}
-
-X 
-adjval(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               adjvalv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	adjvalv->type = "adjval";
-	if (prob(0.25)) {
-		adjvalv->list.x[i++] = adverb(env);
-	}
-	do {
-		adjvalv->list.x[i++] = adjective(env);
-	} while (i < N - 1 && prob(0.25));
-	return adjvalv;
-}
-
-char           *
-prefix(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *pref[] = {
-		"amb", "ambi", "super", "hyper", "an", "tra", "trans", "post", "palim",
-		"omni", "pan", "circ", "circum", "peri", "a", "ab", "abs", "de", "apo",
-		"re", "ana", "mal", "ante", "pre", "fore", "pro", "infra", "para",
-		"inter", "ultra", "extra", "trans", "cata", "de", "oct", "octa",
-		"octo", "equi", "pseudo", "prim", "prot", "proto", "pent", "penta",
-		"quin", "quint", "quinque", "pro", "tetr", "tetra", "quad", "quadr",
-		"quadri", "quartet", "off", "bene", "hemi", "demi", "semi", "crypto",
-		"cent", "centi", "hecto", "en", "em", "in", "im", "intro", "be",
-		"macro", "poly", "mult", "multi", "neo", "nona", "novem", "ennea",
-		"in", "un", "im", "il", "ir", "non", "a", "nil", "paleo", "mon", "mono",
-		"uni", "e", "ex", "ec", "ef", "super", "supr", "sur", "hyper", "vic",
-		"vice", "hept", "hepta", "sept", "septe", "septem", "septi", "hex",
-		"hexa", "sex", "dis", "deca", "deka", "deci", "kilo", "mill", "milli",
-		"tri", "per", "dia", "ad", "com", "di", "amphi", "bi", "bin", "bis",
-	"sub", "hypo", "epi", "eu", "holo"};
-	if (prob(0.65))
-		return "";
-	return CHOOSE(pref);
-}
-
-char           *
-root(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *root[] = {
-		"pan", "omni", "arch", "zo", "rog", "rogat", "cred", "flect", "flex",
-		"test", "hem", "hemato", "nasc", "nat", "bibl", "fer", "voc", "port", "lat",
-		"fortuna", "ped", "chrom", "vinc", "vict", "crea", "cise", "mort", "mors",
-		"necr", "claim", "clam", "hetero", "pel", "puls", "vac", "iso", "phobe",
-		"phobia", "prim", "prime", "flu", "flux", "sequ", "liber", "liver", "theo",
-		"magna", "medi", "man", "manu", "pen", "pend", "pens", "eu", "capit",
-		"iatr", "aud", "aus", "cor", "cord", "cour", "grav", "ten", "tain",
-		"tent", "sacr", "sacer", "heiro", "sanct", "cide", "mega", "ultima",
-		"ridi", "risi", "leg", "jus", "jur", "nom", "duc", "duct", "duce",
-		"bio", "viv", "vivi", "vita", "lus", "lum", "luc", "photo",
-		"min", "philo", "phile", "phila", "amic", "anthrop", "poly", "multi",
-		"fac", "fact", "fic", "fect", "meter", "psych", "mod", "mot", "mov",
-		"nov", "neo", "neg", "uni", "alter", "ali", "idio", "pop", "dem",
-		"demo", "lic", "licit", "poten", "posse", "potes", "mem", "simul",
-		"arch", "homo", "mar", "mer", "vis", "vid", "scope", "auto", "mitt",
-		"miss", "ac", "acr", "brev", "clud", "clus", "dorm", "micro", "aster",
-		"astro", "rect", "recti", "forc", "fort", "path", "cap", "cep", "cept",
-		"put", "tempo", "tempor", "dent", "dont", "ver", "veri",
-		"feder", "fide", "feal", "fid", "cosm", "migra", "hydro", "aqu",
-		"endo", "gyn", "logo", "opus", "oper", "graph", "scrib", "scrip",
-	"mis", "miso", "anni", "annu", "enni", "ced", "cede", "ceed", "cess"};
-	return CHOOSE(root);
-}
-
-prob(f)
-	double          f;
-{
-	return (R) < (f * 32767.0);
-}
-
-char           *
-tense()
-{
-	return prob(0.5) ? "pres" : "past";
-}
-
-char           *
-number()
-{
-	return prob(0.25) ? "plural" : "sing";
-}
-
-X 
-getxx()
-{
-	X               rv;
-	static XX       empty;
-
-	rv = (X) malloc(sizeof *rv);
-	if (rv == 0)
-		fprintf(stderr, "festoon: outa space\n"), exit(1);
-	*rv = empty;
-	return rv;
-}
-
-X 
-verbal(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               verbalv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-	verbalv->type = "verbal";
-	if (prob(0.25))
-		verbalv->list.x[i++] = adverb(env);
-	verbalv->list.x[i++] = verb(env);
-	return verbalv;
-}
-
-static char    *advlist[] = {"absolutely", "functionally",
-	"accordingly", "broadly", "actionably", "actually",
-	"additionally",
-	"ambiguously", "amply",
-	"analogously",
-	"aperiodically",
-	"apparently", "appreciably",
-	"appropriately", "approximately",
-	"arbitrarily",
-	"associatively",
-	"automatically",
-	"awfully",
-	"axiomatically",
-	"badly", "barely", "basically",
-	"beneficially",
-	"blatantly",
-	"capably", "carefully", "carelessly",
-	"casually", "causally", "cautiously",
-	"centrally", "certainly",
-	"cheaply", "cleanly",
-	"closely", "coarsely", "cognizantly",
-	"coincidentally", "collectively", "collaterally",
-	"comparably",
-	"competently", "completely", "comprehensibly",
-	"concededly", "conceivably",
-	"concisely", "conclusively", "concretely",
-	"concurrently", "conjecturally",
-	"currently",
-	"conscientously", "consequently", "consequentially",
-	"consistently", "constantly",
-	"contemporaneuosly", "constructively",
-	"continually", "continuously", "contractually",
-	"contrarily", "contributatively", "conveniently",
-	"conventionally",
-	"correctively",
-	"correctly",
-	"crudely",
-	"curiously",
-	"decidedly",
-	"deeply",
-	"deficiently", "demandingly",
-	"dependably", "desireably",
-	"determinately", "diagnostically",
-	"differentially", "differently",
-	"directly", "discernibly",
-	"distinctly", "doubtfully", "dramatically",
-	"dynamically",
-	"economically",
-	"effecaciously", "efficiently",
-	"elegantly",
-	"emphatically", "encouragingly",
-	"endlessly", "endurably",
-	"entirely", "epistomologically",
-	"functionally", "immediately",
-	"equably", "equally", "equitably", "erroneously",
-	"esoterically", "eternally", "evenly", "eventfully",
-	"eventually", "evidently",
-	"exceedingly", "exactly", "excellently",
-	"exceptionally", "excessively", "exclusively",
-	"experimentally",
-	"explicitly", "extremely",
-	"factually", "faithfully",
-	"faultlessly", "feasibly",
-	"finitely", "firmly", "forcefully",
-	"formally", "formerly", "frankly", "freely",
-	"frugally", "fully", "generally",
-	"globally", "gradually",
-	"harmlessly",
-	"helpfully",
-	"highly", "homogeneously",
-	"hopefully",
-	"ideally", "identically", "ideologically",
-	"idiomatically", "idiosyncratically", "idly",
-	"imaginably", "immaterially", "immensely",
-	"impartially", "imperceptably", "imperfectly", "importantly",
-	"improperly", "imprudently", "inaccurately", "inappropriately",
-	"accurately",
-	"inclusively", "incompletely", "incorrectly",
-	"increasingly", "independently",
-	"indirectly", "ineffectively", "ineffectually", "inefficiently",
-	"infallibly", "instantaneously", "instantly",
-	"insufficiently", "internally", "likely", "only",
-	"invaluably", "inversely", "irrelevantly", "irrespectively",
-	"largely", "lastly", "legitimately", "literally",
-	"locally", "loosely", "manageably", "markedly",
-	"memorably", "mildly", "mindfully", "moderately",
-	"momentarily", "naturally", "needfully", "needlessly",
-	"nominally", "normally", "objectively", "occasionally",
-	"temporarily",
-	"officially", "oppositely", "ordinarily", "ostensibly",
-	"partially", "permissibly",
-	"personally", "pertinently",
-	"physically", "plainly", "plainly",
-	"pleasingly", "politically",
-	"potentially", "predictively",
-	"predominantly", "prematurely", "preparedly", "presently",
-	"previously", "primarily",
-	"primely", "principally", "problematically",
-	"productively", "promptly", "proportionately",
-	"provably", "purely", "quickly", "radically", "randomly", "recently",
-	"repeatedly", "secondarily", "separately",
-	"usually", "specifically",
-	"redundantly", "regardlessly", "reliably",
-	"remarkably", "remotely", "respectively",
-	"probably",
-	"robustly", "seemingly",
-	"sensibly", "singularly", "steadily",
-	"strikingly", "substantially", "successfully",
-	"supposedly", "systematically", "understandably",
-	"necessarily", "unfortunately",
-	"unnecessarily", "unmistakably", "usefully", "weakly"};
-	
-X 
-adverb(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *wordy[] = {"very ", "extremely ", "generally ",
-		"reasonably ", "fundamentally ", "essentially ", "particularly ",
-		"very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"very ", "very ",
-		"entirely ",
-		"rather ", "fairly ", "relatively ", "comparatively ",
-		"moderately ",
-		"totally ", "very ", "quite "};
-	static char    *suff[] = {"wardly", "ably", "wisely",
-		"ably", "ily", "ly", "ly", "ly"};
-
-	X               adverbv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-
-	adverbv->type = "-adverb";
-	if (prob(0.150)) {
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = prob(.5) ? "simply" : "easily";
-		return adverbv;
-	}
-	if (prob(0.4))
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(wordy);
-	if (prob(makeup))
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(advlist);
-	else {
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = prefix(env);
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = root(env);
-		adverbv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(suff);
-	}
-	return adverbv;
-}
-
-X 
-adjective(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *suff[] = {"ive", "ful", "ous", "some", "oid",
-	"ine", "esque", "en", "an",
-	"ile", "able", "ible", "istic", "ic",
-	"an", "ian", "ish", "ite", "al", "less"};
-	X               adjv = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-
-	adjv->type = "-adjective";
-	if (prob(0.2)) {
-		adjv->list.s[i++] = "not ";
-		adjv->list.s[i++] = "un";
-	}
-	if (prob(makeup)) {
-		adjv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(adjlist);
-		return adjv;
-	}
-	adjv->list.s[i++] = prefix(env);
-	adjv->list.s[i++] = root(env);
-	adjv->list.s[i++] = CHOOSE(suff);
-	return adjv;
-}
-
-X 
-adjph(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               adjv = getxx();
-	EE              nenv;
-	static EE       empty;
-	int             i = 0;
-	adjv->type = "adjph";
-	if (prob(0.25)) {
-		nenv = *env;
-		nenv.tense = 0;
-		adjv->list.x[i++] = rel(&nenv);
-		adjv->list.x[i++] = aux(&nenv);
-		adjv->list.x[i++] = vp(&nenv);
-		return adjv;
-	}
-	nenv = empty;
-	adjv->list.x[i++] = prep(&nenv);
-	adjv->list.x[i++] = np(&nenv);
-	return adjv;
-}
-
-static char    *preplist[] = {"across", "by", "in", "of",
-	"near", "under", "over",
-	"in back of", "below", "behind", "of", "of", "of", "of",
-	"centered around", "centered about",
-	"in close proximity to", "following after",
-	"in between", "in conflict with", "in conjunction with",
-	"in the area of", "in the neighborhood of", "in the proximity of",
-	"in the field of", "for the purpose of",
-	"giving rise to", "based upon", "being caused by",
-	"of", "of", "of", "of",
-	"being effectuated by", "being aggrevated by",
-	"being used with",
-	"being collected together with", "being combined together with",
-	"connected up to", "exhibiting a tendency towards",
-	"being facilitated by",
-	"being employed with",
-	"having a deleterious effect upon", "impacting",
-	"being joined together with", "being merged together with",
-	"in the vicinity of"};
-
-X 
-prep(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               pv = getxx();
-	pv->type = "-prep";
-	pv->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(preplist);
-	return pv;
-}
-
-X 
-comp(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	EE              nenv;
-	static EE       empty;
-	int             i = 0;
-	nenv = empty;
-	v->type = "comp";
-	if (0 && prob(0.001))
-		v->list.x[i++] = adjective(&nenv);
-	else if (prob(0.1))
-		v->list.x[i++] = advp(&nenv);
-	else {
-		if (env->passive)
-			v->list.x[i++] = passprep(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = np(&nenv);
-		env->passive = 0;
-	}
-	if (0 && prob(0.05))
-		v->list.x[i++] = adverb(&nenv);
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-advp(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "advp";
-	v->list.x[0] = vprep(env);
-	v->list.x[1] = np(env);
-	return v;
-}
-
-static char    *vpreplist[] = {"to", "at", "by", "from", "with", "for"};
-
-X 
-vprep(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-vprep";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(vpreplist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-E 
-getenvq()
-{
-	static EE       empty;
-	E               v;
-	v = (E) malloc(sizeof *v);
-	if (v == 0)
-		printf("outa room\n"), exit(1);
-	*v = empty;
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-comma(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	static EE       empty;
-
-	v->type = "-comma";
-	v->list.s[0] = ",";
-	*env = empty;
-	return v;
-}
-
-static char    *conjadvlist[] = {"we believe", "naturally", "therefore",
-	"moreover", "obviously"};
-
-X 
-conjadv(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-
-	v->type = "-conjadv";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(conjadvlist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-static char    *lconjlist[] = {"therefore", "however", "nevertheless",
-	"consequently", "also", "in addition", "moreover",
-	"accordingly", "essentially", "presumably", "actually",
-	"basically", "importantly", "clearly", "obviously",
-	"needless to say", "as already stated",
-	"generally", "approximately", "presently",
-	"hopefully", "usually", "in the great majority of cases",
-	"seen in the above light", "most significantly",
-	"when the need arises",
-	"in a large number of cases", "after this is accomplished",
-	"in all cases",
-	"having been made aware concerning these matters",
-	"as an example of this", "as a consequence of this",
-	"as a matter of fact", "as is often the case",
-	"as of this date", "assuming that this is the case",
-	"at the present moment in time", "at this time",
-	"as a consequent result of this", "as a desireable benefit of this",
-	"if at all possible", "similarly", "in the same connection",
-	"in large measure", "in many cases", "in rare cases",
-	"in some cases", "in the interim", "in the last analysis",
-	"in light of these facts", "in the majority of instances",
-	"in the not too distant future", "in the same way as described above",
-	"in this case", "for all intents and purposes",
-	"to arrive at an approximation", "for this reason",
-	"for many reasons, then",
-	"as is often the case", "last but not least",
-	"later on", "on a few occasions", "on this occasion",
-	"in summary", "taking this into consideration",
-	"with this in mind",
-	"substantially", "ultimately"};
-
-X 
-lconjadv(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-lconjadv";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(lconjlist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-conjsub(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	static char    *conjsublist[] = {"although", "even though",
-		"despite the fact that",
-		"for the simple reason that",
-		"because", "due to the fact that", "since",
-		"whether or not",
-		"inasmuch as",
-	"as"};
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-conjsub";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(conjsublist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-static char    *lconjsublist[] = {"although", "even though",
-	"despite the fact that",
-	"because", "due to the fact that", "since",
-	"if", "anytime that", "in the case that",
-	"as a consequence of the fact that",
-	"as regards the fact that",
-	"as a desireable benefit of the fact that",
-	"with reference to the fact that",
-	"as long as",
-	"as an important essential of the fact that",
-	"in conjunction with the fact that",
-	"in the light of the fact that",
-	"if", "if", "if", "if",
-	"leaving out of consideration the fact that",
-	"just as",
-	"inasmuch as", "until such time as",
-	"as soon as", "being as", "in the same way as",
-	"with the exception of the fact that",
-	"notwithstanding the fact that",
-	"on the grounds that",
-	"on the basis of the fact that",
-	"persuant to the fact that",
-	"although it seems apparent that",
-	"with regard to the fact that",
-	"as can be seen from the fact that",
-	"as"};
-
-X 
-lconjsub(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-lconjsub";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(lconjsublist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-static char    *conjlist[] = {"and", "but", "yet", "and", "and"};
-
-X 
-conj(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-conj";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(conjlist);
-	return v;
-}
-static char    *nomzlist[] = {"it is easy to see that",
-	"it is a basic fact that",
-	"it is obvious that", "it is not unimportant that",
-	"it is easy to overlook the fact that",
-	"it is within the realm of possibility that",
-	"it is apparent that",
-	"this is indicitive of the fact that",
-	"this is in substantial agreement with the fact that",
-	"this demonstrates the fact that",
-	"this leaves out of consideration the fact that",
-	"it is of the utmost importance that",
-	"the truth is that",
-	"the fact is that",
-	"it turns out that", "it will turn out to be true that",
-	"it should be noted that",
-	"it stands to reason that",
-	"it would not be unreasonable to assume that",
-	"it is interesting to note that",
-	"this can be proved by:",
-	"this is a trivial consequence of",
-	"it is assumed that",
-	"it remains to be shown that",
-	"it is left to the reader to prove"
-};
-
-X 
-nomz(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	v->type = "-nomz";
-	v->list.s[0] = CHOOSE(nomzlist);
-	return v;
-}
-
-X
-equation(env)
-	E 		env;
-{
-	X		v = getxx();
-	static char eqnbuff[100], x;
-	static char *eqnelem[] = {"int", "sum", "prod", "union", "inter"};
-	static char *eqnfn[] = { "sin", "cos", "tan", "arc", "det",
-		"log", "exp", "f", "g", "sinh", "O", "J sub 0", "J sub 1",
-		"P sub i", "gamma", "zeta" };
-	static char *eqnval[] = { "0", "DELTA", "GAMMA", "LAMBDA",
-		"OMEGA", "PHI", "PSI", "SIGMA", "THETA", "UPSILON",
-		"XI", "alpha", "beta", "gamma", "delta", "epsilon",
-		"eta", "kappa","lambda", "mu", "omega", "x", "zeta", "inf"};
-	static char *eqnrel[] = {"=", "<=", ">=", "==", "!=", "approx"};
-
-	x = 'a' + (R)%26;
-	v->type = "-eqn";
-	sprintf(eqnbuff,"$%s from %c=%d to %s %s ( %c ) d%c %s %s$",
-		CHOOSE(eqnelem), x, (R)&077, CHOOSE(eqnval), CHOOSE(eqnfn),
-		x, x, CHOOSE(eqnrel), CHOOSE(eqnval));
-	v->list.s[0] = eqnbuff;
-	return v;
-}
-
-X 
-turgid(env)
-	E               env;
-{
-	X               v = getxx();
-	int             i = 0;
-
-	v->type = "turgid";
-	if (prob(T * 1.5)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = lconjadv(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	} else if (prob(2 * T)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = turgid(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = conj(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	} else if (prob(1.5 * T)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = lconjsub(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	} else if (prob(T * .5)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = conjadv(env);
-	} else if (prob(T)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = turgid(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = conjsub(env);
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	} else if (prob(.5 * T)) {
-		v->list.x[i++] = nomz(env);
-		if (eqn && prob(.5)) {
-			v->list.x[i++] = equation(env);
-			v->list.x[i++] = comma(env);
-			v->list.x[i++] = conj(env);
-		}
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	} else
-		v->list.x[i++] = sent(env);
-	return v;
-}
-
-/**********************************************************/
-main(argc, argv)
-	char           *argv[];
-{
-	static char    *furniture[] = {"WASTEBASKET", "ASHTRAY", "TABLE",
-	"DESK DRAWER", "COAT LOCKER", "BOOKSHELF"};
-
-	static char    *ccto[] = {
-		"J. N. Akkerhuis",
-		"J. J. Argosy",
-		"M. D. Banal",
-		"H. V. Bandersnatch",
-		"F. W. Blivet",
-		"Z. Brazen",
-		"M. Bushido",
-		"J. D. Carbuncle",
-		"N. Crab",
-		"R. H. deTruckle",
-		"R. L. Drechsler",
-		"C. B. Dudgeon",
-		"R. T. Dun",
-		"W. G. Fallow",
-		"R. S. Flummox",
-		"R. N. Fribble",
-		"C. R. Glitch",
-		"R. H. Hardin",
-		"S. A. Hobble",
-		"B. W. Kernighan",
-		"D. B. Knudsen",
-		"C. L'Hommedieu",
-		"R. S. Limn",
-		"S. T. Livid",
-		"Mrs. B. R. Mauve",
-		"C. Mee",
-		"N-P. Nelson",
-		"C. H. Russet",
-		"M. Shayegan",
-		"M. H. Simper",
-		"B. R. Sorrel",
-		"G. Swale",
-		"R. R. Swarthy",
-		"P. Terra-Cotta",
-	"U. G. Winnow"};
-
-	static char	*picelem[] = { "box", "ellipse", "box", "box"};
-	static char	*piccon[] = { "arrow", "line", "line <-", "line <->",
-	"spline", "spline <-", "spline <->"};
-	static char	*picdir[] = { "right", "down right", "down",
-	"left", "up left", "left", "down", "down right", NULL};
-	E               env;
-	X               tree;
-	int             i = 0, j = 0, k = 0;
-	int             lim = 0;
-	long            t = 0;
-	char            c, **str, *splitup();
-	int		junk, junk2;
-
-	for (i = 1, ++argv; i < argc; i++, argv++)
-		if (*argv[0] == '-')	/* -pet -snnn */
-			while (c = *++argv[0])
-				switch (c) {
-				case 'z':
-					flag = 1;
-					continue;
-				case 'p':
-					pic = 1;
-					continue;
-				case 't':
-					tbl = 1;
-					continue;
-				case 'e':
-					eqn = 1;
-					continue;
-				case 's':
-				t = atoi(argv[0]+1); argv[0][1] = '\0';
-					continue;
-				default:
-					abo();	/* illegal option */
-				}
-		else if (lim == 0)
-			lim = atoi(argv[0]);
-		else
-			makeup = 1.0 - (float) atoi(argv[0]) / 100.0;
-	if (t == 0)
-		time(&t);
-	if (makeup < 0. || makeup > 1.0)
-		makeup = .95;
-	if (lim <= 0)
-		lim = 25;
-	srand((int) t);
-
-	printf(".TL\n");
-	env = getenvq();
-	tree = np(env);
-	io = 0;
-	pr(tree);
-	buff[io] = 0;
-	caps();
-	printf("%s\n", buff);
-	printf(".AU \"C. C. Festoon\" CCF Headquarters %d\n", t);
-	if (eqn)
-		printf(".EQ\ndelim $$\n.EN\n");
-	printf(".AS\n");
-	free(env);
-	do {
-		env = getenvq();
-		tree = turgid(env);
-		io = 0;
-		pr(tree);
-		buff[io] = 0;
-		printf("%s.\n", buff);
-		free(env);
-	} while (prob(0.75));
-	printf(".AE\n");
-	printf(".MT \"MEMORANDUM FOR %s\"\n.hy 1\n",
-	       CHOOSE(furniture));
-	while (i++ < lim) {
-		if (i % 23 == 0) {	/* Time for a section header */
-			env = getenvq();
-			tree = np(env);
-			io = 0;
-			printf(".H 1 \"");
-			pr(tree);
-			buff[io] = 0;
-			caps();
-			printf("%s\"\n", buff);
-			free(env);
-		}
-		if (i % 27 == 0 && pic) {	/* Time for a picture */
-			printf(".DS CB\n.ps -2\n.PS\n");
-			str = &(CHOOSE(picdir));
-			if (*str == NULL) str = &picdir[0];
- 			junk2 = (R&07) + 3;
-			for(junk = 1; junk < junk2; junk++) {
-				printf("%s; ", *str);
-				if (str == &picdir[0]) {
-					pic = 2; printf("A: ");
-				}
-				printf("%s %s ht %3.1f wid %3.1f\n",
-				CHOOSE(picelem), splitup(CHOOSE(nounlist)),
-				0.4+0.5/junk2, 0.8+0.6/junk2);
-				printf("%s %s %3.1f ",
-				CHOOSE(piccon), *str, 0.2+.3/junk2);
-				if (*++str == NULL) str = &picdir[0];
-				printf("then %s %3.1f %s\n",
-				*str, 0.3+.2/junk2,
-				splitup(CHOOSE(adjlist)));
-			}
-			printf("circle rad .3 \"process\" \"completion\"\n");
-			if (pic == 2) {
-				pic =1;
-				printf("line <- dashed up .25 from A.n\n");
-				printf("circle rad .3 \"process\" \"start\"\n");
-			}
-			printf(".PE\n.ps +2\n.DE\n");
-			printf(".ce\n\\fBFigure %d\\fP\n", i/27);
-		}
-		if (i % 41 == 0 && tbl) {	/* Time for a table */
-			printf(".TS\n");
-			printf("box, center;\nc\ts\ts\n");
-			printf("n | l | lw(%3.1fi).\n", 2.0+(41.0+(t&07))/i);
-			printf("Action Plan %d\n=\n", i);
-			printf("Item\tWho\tAction\n");
-			for (junk = 1; junk < (i&17)+4; junk++) {
-				printf("_\n%d\t", t/i+junk);
-				printf("%s\tT{\n", CHOOSE(ccto));
-				free(env);
-				env = getenvq();
-				io = 0;
-				tree = sent(env);
-				pr(tree);
-				buff[io] = 0;
-				printf("%s.\nT}\n", buff);
-			}
-			printf(".TE\n");
-			printf(".ce\n\\fBTable %d\\fP\n", i/41);
-		}
-		env = getenvq();
-		tree = turgid(env);
-		io = 0;
-		pr(tree);
-		buff[io] = 0;
-		if (++k % 13 == 0 && prob(0.35)) {	/* Bullet list */
-			printf("%s:\n", buff);
-			printf(".BL\n");
-			do {
-				printf(".LI\n");
-				free(env);
-				env = getenvq();
-				io = 0;
-				tree = sent(env);
-				pr(tree);
-				buff[io] = 0;
-				printf("%s.\n", buff);
-			} while (prob(.83));
-			printf(".LE\n");
-			printf(".P\n");
-		} else {
-			if (k % 11 == 0 && prob(.21)) {	/* do as footnote */
-				printf("%s\\*F.\n", buff);
-				free(env);
-				env = getenvq();
-				io = 0;
-				tree = sent(env);
-				pr(tree);
-				buff[io] = 0;
-				printf(".FS\n%s.\n.FE\n", buff);
-			}
-			else printf("%s.\n", buff);	/* normal flush */
-		}
-		if (++j > 2 && prob(0.4))
-			printf(".P\n"), j = 0;
-		free(env);
-	}
-	printf(".SG\n");
-	printf(".NS 0\n");
-	for (j = 0; j == 0;) {
-		for (i = 0; i < sizeof ccto / sizeof *ccto; i++) {
-			if (prob(.10))
-				j = 1, printf("%s\n", ccto[i]);
-		}
-	}
-	printf(".NE\n");
-	exit(0);
-}
-
-pr(tree)
-	X               tree;
-{
-	int             i;
-	if (flag ) {
-		out("<");
-		out(tree->type);
-		out(">");
-	}
-	if (tree->type[0] == '-') {
-		out(" ");
-		for (i = 0; tree->list.s[i]; i++) {
-			out(tree->list.s[i]);
-		}
-	} else
-		for (i = 0; tree->list.x[i]; i++) {
-			pr(tree->list.x[i]);
-		}
-	free(tree);
-	return;
-}
-
-out(s)
-	char           *s;
-{
-	if (io == 0 && *s == ' ')
-		return;
-	if (io == 0) {
-		for (; s[io]; io++)
-			buff[io] = s[io];
-		buff[0] += 'A' - 'a';
-		return;
-	}
-	if ((buff[io - 1] == ' ' || buff[io - 1] == '\n' ) && *s == ' ')
-		return;
-	if (buff[io - 1] == ' ' && *s == ',') {
-		buff[io - 1] = ',';
-		buff[io++] = '\n';
-		return;
-	}
-	if (buff[io - 1] == 'y' && *s == 'i' && s[1] == 'e')
-		io--;
-	else if (*s == buff[io - 1] && *s != 's' && *s != 'n')
-		io--;
-	else if (*s == 'e' && buff[io - 1] == 'a')
-		io--;
-	for (; *s;)
-		buff[io++] = *s++;
-	return;
-}
-
-caps()
-{
-	int             i;
-	for (i = 1; i < io; i++)
-		if (buff[i - 1] == ' ' && buff[i] <= 'z' && buff[i] >= 'a')
-			buff[i] += 'A' - 'a';
-}
-
-abo() {
-	fprintf(stderr, "usage: festoon [-pet] [-sSEED] [SENTENCES] [%%-invented-nouns]\n");
-	exit(1);
-}
-
-char *
-splitup(strlab) char *strlab;
-{
-	static char label[64];
-	int j, c;
-
-	label[0]='"';
-	for (j=1; j<60 &&
-		(c = *strlab++) != '\0'; j++)
-		if (c == ' ') {
-			label[j++]='"';
-			label[j++]=' ';
-			label[j]='"';
-		}
-		else
-			label[j] = c;
-	label[j++] = '"'; label[j] = '\0';
-	return(label);
-}
//GO.SYSIN DD fest.c
--upas-fxmifxlopjmbqdhuivdgtyidjv--





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: cbunix23@yahoo.com
Cc: Warren@plan9.bell-labs.com, Toomey@plan9.bell-labs.com,
	<wkt@tuhs.org>
Subject: Re: cb/unix tapes
From: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Tue, 15 Jul 2003 21:23:37 -0400
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They've arrived on my doorstep; thanks, Larry. 
9-track drives seem thin on the ground, but we'll
see.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@tuhs.org
Cc: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: Re: What code USL -> Novell?
From: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Tue, 9 Sep 2003 23:42:11 -0400
In-Reply-To: <20030909235217.GB72324@minnie.tuhs.org>
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Hi Warren, I trust you haven't been hassled much by
(current) SCO.  At least the archive seems to
mentioned  only in passing by other parties
and not a subject of the suit itself.

> When Novell bought USL, do you know exactly what source code trees they
> were given, or which trees USL were in possession of?

No, I don't know, nor do I know (off the top of the head)
what was the current version of SV at the time of the
sale--presumably r4.

 I may have told you this story before, but at the time
of USL's final spinoff from AT&T, I had the documents
about what USL got from AT&T Computer Systems.  By way of OS,
it really talked only about System V.  During the BSDI suit,
I thought that possibly the whole thing could be short-circuited
by AT&T releasing 5e through 32V.  The Bell Labs (AT&T) lawyer I talked
to observed that on the surface only SV was part of of the
deal, and the argument could well be made, but there was a
reference in the contract to "development versions" and this could
be used to argue that everything (from the start) was part of this.
(There was certainly no language that kept ownership of
early versions with AT&T).

I didn't try to push the matter further--
AT&T itself had  divested USL it it seemed highly unlikely that
I could get support for interfering in someone else's ongoing
suit.

 > In a newspaper article I mentioned that I had to ship the Santa Cruz
 > Organization copies of 5e, 6e, 7e, 32V and SysIII because they did not
 > have these old versions.

As for the Novell-SCO sale, and what SCO got (whether mentioned
in the contract, or what materials they got), I have no information. 
As you say, SCO during its kindlier phase didn't seem to have
physical copies of the earlier code, which you and they got from
people who had tapes or their own archives.

My take on this is that current SCO is indeed the owner
of the SV code and its direct predecessors--the predecessors
because (at the time) no one contested this.  Clearly much
of this leaked out, though through the 80s and 90s it
was subject to licenses, as were (I suppose) AUSAM sources, Ultrix,
the early BSDs.

In the earlier case the judge didn't seem to be too much impressed
by USL copyright claims (partly for reasons having to do with
then-current US law), or the trade secret ones (approximately,
too many people know the secret).

 > I'd like to try and definitely determine if current SCO have a break
 > in their code genealogy, e.g they are missing SysV or SysVR1 or SysVR2.
 > It would lend weight to the argument that some of the code that they
 > claim leaked into Linux might actually be code that was inherited from
 > (say) AUSAM, Ultrix or the early BSDs.

A break in chain-of-custody looks more than probable; whether
this is a useful argument is another question.

Best wishes with the course.  You might be interested in hearing
that one of the MIT introductory courses in OSs is trying to
use Lions as source material (complete with a simulator)--
but sadly the republished book is out of print.  So they're
using Xeroxes again!

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Message-ID: <402a98bdd15d1b87890cb2b410a2ee6e@plan9.bell-labs.com>
To: wkt@tuhs.org
Subject: Re: What code USL -> Novell?
From: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Date: Thu, 11 Sep 2003 02:27:22 -0400
In-Reply-To: <20030910040721.GA74013@minnie.tuhs.org>
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 > Are there any publicly available records on the USL divestiture from
 > AT&T, that list what you have described, i.e SysV and development
 > predecessors?

I can't imagine that the whole agreement would be available
from public records (except of course that the fact itself
would be somehow recorded) but not the IP contract.
Somewhere I think I might still have this, but the only thing
I was able to dig up was the one page.  The rest
did cover some non-OS software.   As I recall, C++
rights (to whatever compiler was extant then) were
included, but in a later agreement went back to AT&T.
I'll keep looking.

 > Yes, I don't know if it is useful, but I thought I should at least
 > try to follow it up in case SCO wheels out lots of 4.2BSD code and
 > says "We wrote this".

In the case of 4.2BSD code, although SCO didn't write it,
it's likely they could readily that they do seem to have grandfathered
rights, given that it was covered under UCB's agreement
with AT&T/WECo.  On the other hand, the rights do seem
to be diluted considerably given the terms of the the
licenses granted by the earlier SCO.  I asked whether you (TUHS)
were being hassled because if the early stuff was really
important, one would expect that they would take action.

 > Now that's ironic, the many-times photocopied book goes underground again.
 > Yes I had some e-mail from MIT last week with a patch to my PDP-11 Apout
 > simulator: they are using it to quickly compile the 6e kernels.

Well, not really underground, just the publisher not keeping it
current.

 > One last thing, I've been asked again what you are doing with the paper-only
 > documents from 2nd Edition and earlier (code snippets etc.) Were they every
 > scanned in, or are they still in paper-only format?

Still paper-only, I'm afraid, but there's not a lot there.

	Regards,
	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@minnie.tuhs.org, dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: [TUHS] Re:  Anybody with a copy of this paper?
From: norman@nose.cs.utoronto.ca (Norman Wilson)
Date: Fri, 28 Nov 2003 10:51:06 -0500
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For what it's worth, I have the Goble and March paper in hardcopy.
I cannot conveniently scan, but I will be glad to make photocopies.

I think the original question was about SMP, though, and the Purdue
two-headed VAX system wasn't symmetric: all I/O went through one CPU;
the second CPU ran only in user mode (as did the first when it wasn't
busy doing something else).





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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To: wkt@tuhs.org
Cc: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Subject: Re: A Question on Idris
Date: Tue, 3 Feb 2004 20:29:25 -0500
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> 	I'm doing some work for IBM on the you-know-what case, and I have
> a few questions for you. However, I don't know if you're allowed to give
> opinions on things, so let me know if I am out of order here.

I've avoided opinion about things except where I have
documented facts.  I'm allowed to talk, but I'm cautious
about  being silly in public.  SCO has broadcast lots of silly things
but I won't.

> I recall an e-mail from you where you said that you went to visit
> Whitesmiths after they released either Idris or their C compiler,
> to verify that no UNIX code was in the product. However, I can't
> find the e-mail, and it was a good story too.

This is a misremberance: the company I  looked at was
Mark Williams, and their Coherent product.
I found a version of my account on google groups:

  http://groups.google.com/groups?q=ritchie+coherent+williams&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&safe=off&selm=tgmErpF97.JCC%40netcom.com&rnum=1

and I found this by looking for "ritchie coherent williams"
in advanced group search.

> I know that Whitesmith made their products deliberately incompatible
> with Unix to begin with: function names, constant values etc. Later,
> they made things compatible. Did AT&T give their official "blessing"
> to such compatible products?

Whitesmith's Idris (main person Bill (P. J.) Plauger) was I think a bit earlier
than Coherent.  I don't know whether he asked or received official blessing.
At the time, my reaction was that he was being excessively cautious to make
many of the changes he did, but no doubt he was also motivated
by a desire to rethink and redesign some of the primitives and interfaces.

> I'm assuming that Idris would have released quite a number of header
> files which were similar to, if not nearly identical to, UNIX header
> files (errno.h, signal.h, ctype.h in particular). The earliest
> evidence I have for this dates back to 1978. Did this cause any concern
> within AT&T? Was there a policy or a consensus within AT&T that other
> companies could copy the contents of these files?

All the signs are that the system interfaces (behavior of
commands, structures involved in system calls) as shown in the manuals
and in published papers were reasonably public, and AT&T
didn't chase people because of them. I don't
recall Whitesmith/Idris being looked at suspiciously,
but you could ask him whether he was hassled.

Coherent was looked at but not pursued.  BSDi was a special case;  USL
convinced themselves that BSDi (and CSRG) could not possibly
have done what they did without wholesale code importation.
In some ways I think USL had a moral case in that without
10 years or so of experience with licensed Unix, UCB couldn't
really have done what they did, but when it came down to
the facts about common code, plus published material like
SVID and Bach's book, plus the details concerning copyright,
they didn't prevail.

> Thanks again, hope you & family had a good Xmas & New Years too!

Had a nice trip to England to visit my sister, with a boxing
day journey to Scotland.  Best to you as well.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Date: Wed, 4 Feb 2004 10:14:27 +1000
From: Warren Toomey <wkt@tuhs.org>
To: Dennis Ritchie <dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com>
Cc: Warren Toomey <wkt@minnie.tuhs.org>
Subject: A Question on Idris
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Hi Dennis,
	I'm doing some work for IBM on the you-know-what case, and I have
a few questions for you. However, I don't know if you're allowed to give
opinions on things, so let me know if I am out of order here.

I recall an e-mail from you where you said that you went to visit
Whitesmiths after they released either Idris or their C compiler,
to verify that no UNIX code was in the product. However, I can't
find the e-mail, and it was a good story too.

I know that Whitesmith made their products deliberately incompatible
with Unix to begin with: function names, constant values etc. Later,
they made things compatible. Did AT&T give their official "blessing"
to such compatible products?

I'm assuming that Idris would have released quite a number of header
files which were similar to, if not nearly identical to, UNIX header
files (errno.h, signal.h, ctype.h in particular). The earliest
evidence I have for this dates back to 1978. Did this cause any concern
within AT&T? Was there a policy or a consensus within AT&T that other
companies could copy the contents of these files?

Thanks again, hope you & family had a good Xmas & New Years too!

	Warren





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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Subject: Re: Question on the copyright removal event
Date: Tue, 24 Feb 2004 22:37:23 -0500
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First, about the reconstructed facts: When I wrote
 > > This  probably happened between the 4th and 5th
 > > edition.  One of the reasons for doing the 5th so
 > > close to the 4th was that the 4th (I think) had the notices;
 > > the 5th was done partly to take them out.  We
 > > wrote to the holders of the 4th and offered a
 > > free upgrade to people who would send back
 > > the older tape.
 > > 
 > > [The first draft of this paragraph said "5th and 6th"
 > > editions.  In checking the dates, 4th and 5th is much
 > > more likely to be accurate:  4th was Nov 1973, 5th was
 > > June, 1974.  6th was May, 1975.    We don't have
 > > the sources for the 4th ed, so I can't verify the
 > > existence of included copyright notices in its code.
 > > We do have the 5th and 6th sources, and they definitely
 > > lack them.  This is to some extent a reconstruction,
 > > but there was definitely a flip-flop in advice, as Johnson
 > > remembers.]

I should have stuck with the first draft.
I don't know about the 4th edition system or
even remember whether it was collected or distributed at all,
but I must have looked in the wrong places in 5th and 6th.
You are right; 5e has notices almost everywhere, 6e doesn't.
I must have been fooled somehow by the dates, or perhaps
(I'm guessing here) there was a tentative 6th that was withdrawn--
something on the order of "we have an updated version."

> Looking through the 5e and 6e distributions that you sent me,
> there are dozens of copyright notices in 5e but none in 6e; it therefore
> seems that the removal occurred between 5e and 6e, not 4e and 5e.
> 
> You mentioned that "We wrote to the holders of the 4th and offered
> a free upgrade to people who would send back the older tape." I don't
> suppose a copy of the letter would still exist?

I'm pretty sure the letter doesn't exist; at any rate I don't
have it.  In dredging up ancient memory, I think only
a couple of licensees were involved.

> Is there a way for me to describe the insertion/removal of notices
> which would be acceptable to you? Possible options are:
> 	- I name & quote you
> 	- I refer to a Bell Labs employee and quote you
> 	- I refer to a Bell Labs employee and paraphrase you
> 	- I wave my arms around and indicate that I was told this
> 	  in a private correspondance from a reliable source
> 
> If you have any ideas or suggestions on how I might proceed, that would
> be good. Remember that I am being retained by IBM, so I might be asked
> to name names at some stage.

Well, you have some ground facts (the 5e and 6e distributions)
in which notices are there in the earlier and not the later.
(Nor, of course, in 7e or 32V, as came up in the BSDi case).

It's certainly true that at some time we were asked to add notices,
and later to remove them, as Johnson also said.  Right now
the best evidence is that this occurred between 5e and 6e.
You can certainly say that I remember our being asked
to add notices, and later to remove them.

	Dennis





From mairix@mairix Mon Jan  1 12:34:56 1970
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From: Warren Toomey <wkt@tuhs.org>
To: dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com
Cc: Warren Toomey <wkt@minnie.tuhs.org>
Subject: Question on the copyright removal event
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Hi Dennis, how's things?
	Back in 2001 you e-mailed the information below to me. I'm writing
an article for Groklaw about the history of copyright notices on the
Unix releases from 3rd Edition onwards. The details about notices
being inserted and then removed is very relevant, but all I have
is the private e-mail from you below.

Is there a way for me to describe the insertion/removal of notices
which would be acceptable to you? Possible options are:
	- I name & quote you
	- I refer to a Bell Labs employee and quote you
	- I refer to a Bell Labs employee and paraphrase you
	- I wave my arms around and indicate that I was told this
	  in a private correspondance from a reliable source

If you have any ideas or suggestions on how I might proceed, that would
be good. Remember that I am being retained by IBM, so I might be asked
to name names at some stage.

Looking through the 5e and 6e distributions that you sent me,
there are dozens of copyright notices in 5e but none in 6e; it therefore
seems that the removal occurred between 5e and 6e, not 4e and 5e.

You mentioned that "We wrote to the holders of the 4th and offered
a free upgrade to people who would send back the older tape." I don't
suppose a copy of the letter would still exist?

Many thanks again,
	Warren







On Wed, Apr 04, 2001 at 11:45:19PM -0400, dmr@plan9.bell-labs.com wrote:
> Here's what I last sent to Greg.  The putting-in and and subsequent
> removal of the copyright notices happened well before 32V,
> although 32V, as the primary source for BSD was presumably
> most important in the lawsuit.
> 
> Saw your note to the usenix group asking to see any early
> licenses.  As I said, I am quite sure that the licenses themselves
> are not sensitive in any way, but I can understand that you want
> to be careful with your materials.
> 
> 	D.
> 
>  ----
> From: dmr
> Date: Wed Apr  4 22:36:43 EDT 2001
> To: gmp216@nyu.edu dmr
> Subject: Re: ancient Unix question 
> 
> 
> The only USL-BSDI lawsuit material I have came from BSDI's site as well.  If you're
> in contact with Kirk, he's a better source.
> 
> On the Memo for Record:  1984 was
> when AT&T was just leaping into the commercialization,
> and so they were presumably thinking more carefully
> about the IP issues, and maybe there were changes in law or
> regs.  The earlier advice about whether to incorporate copyright
> notices mentioned by Johnson occurred well before this.
> 
> Incidentally, I spent a lot of time with the USL folks
> before the suit trying to work out some sort of
> compromise, though to no avail.  At least I
> managed to keep the trust of both sides.
> 
> Steve Johnson's story about the copyright notices is in accordance
> with my memory, although I don't remember the LOC
> specifically.  There was a brief period when the lawyers
> decided that copyright and trade secret were incompatible,
> and they'd rather go wit